II. Causes

  1. Ionizing radiation exposure (most significant risk)
  2. Polycyclic hydrocarbons
  3. Inorganic metals
  4. Arsenicals
  5. Alkylating Agents
  6. Nitrosamines
  7. Tar exposure (with direct sunlight exposure)
  8. Ultraviolet light exposure
  9. Trauma or Burn Injury

III. Risk Factors: Occupations

  1. Carbonated drink production
  2. Chimney sweep
  3. Coal or tar workers
  4. Metal manufacturing
  5. Mining Industry
  6. Outdoor workers (e.g. farmers)
  7. Road construction
  8. Roofing

IV. Prevention

  1. See Prevention of Contact Dermatitis
  2. Limit direct chemical exposure
  3. Prevent excessive Ultraviolet Radiation exposure
    1. Avoid Sun Exposure during peak hours (10 am to 4 pm)
    2. Wear clothing protective against UV radiation
    3. Wear wide-brimmed hat
    4. Use broad-spectrum Sunscreen (SPF 15 or better)

V. Resources

  1. Haz-Map (Occupational Exposure Database)
    1. http://www.haz-map.com

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