II. Approach: Formulas and General Rules (Children over 1 year old)

  1. Formulas (Systolic Blood Pressure)
    1. Median SBP = 90 mmHg + (2 x Age in years)
    2. Minimum SBP = 70 mmHg + (2 x Age in years)
  2. Rough Approximations
    1. Pulse or Heart Rate (HR)
      1. Infant Pulse: 160
      2. Preschool Pulse: 120
      3. Adolescent Pulse: 100
    2. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP)
      1. Infant SBP: 80
      2. Preschool SBP: 90
      3. Adolescent SBP: 100
    3. Respiratory Rate (RR)
      1. Infant RR: 40
      2. Preschool RR: 30
      3. Adolescent RR: 20

III. Indications: Rapid cardiopulmonary assessment (e.g. Pediatric Assessment Triangle)

  1. Systolic Blood Pressure is observed to drop 10 mm Hg
  2. Respiratory Rate >60
  3. Heart Rate outside ranges shown below
  4. Increased work of breathing
    1. Retractions
    2. Nasal Flaring
    3. Grunting
  5. Cyanosis or decreased Oxygen Saturation
  6. Altered LOC (irritability, lethargy)
  7. Seizures
  8. Fever with Petechiae
  9. Trauma
  10. Burns >10% of body surface area

IV. Evaluation: Age associated Vitals

  1. Term Newborn (3 kg)
    1. Blood Pressure:
      1. Age 12 hours: 50-70 / 25-45
      2. Age 96 hours: 60-90 / 20-60
      3. Age 7 days: 74 +/- 22 mmHg (Systolic BP)
      4. Age 42 days: 96 +/- 20 mmHg (Systolic BP)
    2. Pulse: 80-200
    3. Respiratory Rate: 40-60
  2. Infant (6 months old)
    1. Blood Pressure: 87-105 / 53-66
    2. Pulse: 80-180
  3. Toddler (2 years old)
    1. Blood Pressure: 95-105/53-66
    2. Pulse: 80-180
    3. Respiratory Rate = 24
  4. School age (7 years old)
    1. Blood Pressure: 97-112 / 57-71
    2. Pulse: 60-160
  5. Adolescent (15 years old)
    1. Blood Pressure: 112-128 / 66-80
    2. Pulse: 60-160
    3. Respiratory Rate = 12

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