II. Anatomy

  1. Testicular size (length)
    1. See Tanner Stage
    2. Pre-Puberty: 1.5 to 2 cm
    3. Post-Puberty: 4-5 cm
  2. Images
    1. uroMaleTestesGrayBB1148.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. uroMaleTestesXsGrayBB1149.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

III. Development

  1. Gestation 6-8 weeks: Testes develop from tissue within urogenital ridge
  2. Gestation 10-11 weeks: Androgen secretion
    1. Leydig cells produce testosterone
    2. Wolffian duct (Mesonephric duct) differentiation
      1. Epididymis
      2. Vas deferense
      3. Seminal Vessicles
  3. Gestation 32-36: Testes descend into Scrotum
    1. Testes descend into Scrotum along gubernaculum (which tethers Testicle to distal Scrotum)
    2. Encased by peritoneal lining which forms processus vaginalis
    3. Spermatic cord forms with the trailing vessels
      1. Spermatic artery
      2. Pampiniform venous plexus
      3. Vas deferens

Images: Related links to external sites (from Google)

Ontology: Testicular Diseases (C0039584)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Testicles, or testes, make male hormones and sperm. They are two egg-shaped organs inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin behind the penis. It's easy to injure your testicles because they are not protected by bones or muscles. Men and boys should wear athletic supporters when they play sports.

You should examine your testicles monthly and seek medical attention for lumps, redness, pain or other changes. Testicles can get inflamed or infected. They can also develop cancer. Testicular cancer is rare and highly treatable. It usually happens between the ages of 15 and 40.

Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by involvement of the testis.
Definition (NCI) A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder affecting the testis. Representative examples include torsion, infarction, germ cell tumor, sex cord-stromal tumor, lymphoma, and leukemia.
Definition (CSP) deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the testis.
Definition (MSH) Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D013733
SnomedCT 64910008, 297228003, 236763001
LNC LP18510-5
English Disease, Testicular, Diseases, Testicular, Testicular Diseases, TESTIS DISORDER, testis disorder, TESTICULAR DIS, Disease of testis, disorder of testis, disorder of testis (diagnosis), Testis disorder, Disorder testicle, Testicular disorder NOS, Testicular Diseases [Disease/Finding], Testes, disorder testes, disorders testicle, disorders testicles, testis disease, disorders testicular, testicular disease, testicular diseases, disease testicular, disorders testes, testes disorders, testicular disorder, Testicular Disorders, Testis--Diseases, Testicular disease, Testicular disorder, disease (or disorder); testis, testis; disorder, Disease of testis, NOS, Disorder of testis, NOS, Testicular disorder, NOS, Disorder of testis, Disease of testis (disorder), Disorder of testis (disorder), Testes Disorders, Testicular Disease, Testicular Disorder
Italian Patologia del testicolo, Patologia del testicolo NAS, Patologia testicolare, Malattie del testicolo
Dutch testisaandoening, aandoening testis, testiculaire aandoening NAO, aandoening; testis, testis; aandoening, testiculaire aandoening, Testisziekte, Testisziekten, Ziekte, testis-, Ziekten, testis-
French Affection du testicule SAI, AFFECTION TESTICULAIRE, Trouble testiculaire, Maladies testiculaires, Maladies des testicules, Maladies du testicule
German Affektion der Hoden NNB, Erkrankungen der Hoden, Hodenerkrankungen, HODENVERAENDERUNG, Hodenerkrankung, Hodenkrankheiten
Portuguese Afecção testicular, Afecção testicular NE, ALTERACAO TESTICULAR, Anomalia testicular, Doenças Testiculares
Spanish Trastorno de testículo, Trastorno testicular NEOM, trastorno del testículo, enfermedad del testículo (trastorno), TESTICULO, TRASTORNO, enfermedad testicular, trastorno testicular, Trastorno testicular, trastorno de testículo (trastorno), trastorno de testículo, enfermedad del testículo, Enfermedades Testiculares
Japanese 精巣機能障害, 精巣疾患, 精巣障害NOS, 精巣障害, セイソウショウガイNOS, セイソウショウガイ, セイソウキノウショウガイ, セイソウシッカン
Swedish Testikelsjukdomar
Finnish Kivesten sairaudet
Russian IAICHKA BOLEZNI, ЯИЧКА БОЛЕЗНИ
Czech Testikulární porucha, Porucha varlete, Testikulární porucha NOS, varlata - nemoci, varle - nemoci, nemoci varlete, testis - nemoci, nemoci varlat
Croatian Not Translated[Testicular Diseases]
Polish Choroby jądra
Hungarian Testis rendellenesség, Testicularis betegség, Herebetegség, Testicularis betegség k.m.n.
Norwegian Sykdommer i testikkel, Testikkelsykdommer

Ontology: Testis (C0039597)

Definition (FMA) Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of seminiferous tubules which communicate with the duct of the epididymis. Examples: There only two instances, right testis and left testis.
Definition (UWDA) Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of seminiferous tubules which communicate with the duct of the epididymis. Examples: There only two instances, right testis and left testis.
Definition (NCI) Either of the paired male reproductive glands that produce the male germ cells and the male hormones.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Either of the paired male reproductive glands that produce the male germ cells and the male hormones. (NCI)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) One of two egg-shaped glands inside the scrotum that produce sperm and male hormones.
Definition (MSH) The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Definition (CSP) male gonad; either of the paired glands normally located in the scrotum; each testis is surround by an outer mesothelial layer and an inner white capsule and is composed of compartments which contain the seminiferous tubules where the spermatozoa are produced; specialized interstital Leydig cells secrete androgens.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D013737
SnomedCT 279572002, 40689003
HL7 TESTI
LNC LP30322-9, LP36008-8, LP124832-9, MTHU040200
English Testis, Testes, Testicle structure, Testicular structure, Orchis, Testis (Orchis), testicle, testicles, testes, balls (testicles), male gonad, Testicular structure (body structure), Testicles, TESTIS, testis, Testicle, Testis structure, Male gonad, Testis structure (body structure), Testis, NOS, Male gonad, NOS, Testicle, NOS, Genital System, Male, Testis, Testicle(Testis)
French Testis, Testicule, Testicules
Swedish Testikel
Czech testis, varlata, varle
Finnish Kives
Russian IAICHKI, ЯИЧКИ
Croatian TESTIS
Latvian Sēklinieki
Polish Jądra, Jądro
Japanese 睾丸, 精巣
Norwegian Testikkel, Testikler, Testis
Spanish estructura testicular, estructura testicular (estructura corporal), estructura del testículo (estructura corporal), estructura del testículo, gónada masculina, testículo, Testículo, Testículos
German Hoden, Testis, Testikel
Italian Testicolo
Dutch Teelbal, Testis, Zaadbal, Testikel, Testikels
Portuguese Testículo, Testículos