II. Exercise Selection

  1. Primary Prevention: Regular weight bearing Exercise
    1. Best Exercises
      1. Jogging
      2. Stair climbing
      3. Walking
      4. Hiking
    2. Not as helpful to strengthen bone
      1. Cycling
      2. Swimming
    3. Finnish study of 105 pro tennis/squash players
      1. Increased bone mineral content in Exercisers
      2. Especially if started Exercise before Menarche
    4. References
      1. Kannus (1995) Ann Intern Med 123:27-31 [PubMed]
  2. Secondary and Tertiary Prevention (Prevent Injury)
    1. Avoid high impact Exercise (e.g. jumping, Running)
    2. Avoid excessive trunk flexion/twisting (e.g. golf)

III. Management: General

  1. Improve balance and maintain strength, function
  2. Weight-bearing aerobic activity 4 days weekly
  3. Progressive Resistance Training 2-3 times weekly
    1. Perform 2 sets of 8-10 repetitions
  4. Flexibility Exercise 5-7 days per week

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