I. Pathophysiology

  1. Increased Total Body Water (TBW)
  2. Increased Total Body Sodium
  3. Increased Extracellular Fluid

II. Causes

  1. Excessive intravenous sodium administration
    1. Hypertonic saline administration (3% saline)
    2. Sodium Bicarbonate
    3. Replacing hypotonic insensible loss with 0.9% saline
  2. Mineralocorticoid excess
  3. Excessive Salt intake

III. Management

  1. Discontinue hypertonic sodium administration
  2. Administer Diuretics

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