III. Pathophysiology

  1. Excessive constant water diuresis due to:
    1. Central Anti-Diuretic Hormone deficiency (ADH) or
    2. Lack of renal response to Anti-Diuretic Hormone

IV. Symptoms

  1. Polyuria
  2. Polydipsia
    1. Unquenchable thirst

V. Differential Diagnosis

  1. Psychogenic polydipsia

VI. Labs

VII. Diagnosis

  1. Fluid Deprivation Test
    1. Water deprivation
      1. No response in Nephrogenic DI or Central DI
    2. Exogenous ADH administration
      1. Corrects Central DI
      2. Does not correct Nephrogenic DI
  2. Hare-Hickey Test
    1. Fluid restriction or Injection of Hypertonic Saline
    2. Measure ADH to Serum Osmolality ratio
      1. Decreased ratio in Central Diabetes Insipidus
      2. Increased ratio in Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

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Ontology: Diabetes Insipidus (C0011848)

Definition (MSH) A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
Definition (CHV) A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST.
Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes frequent urination. You become extremely thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This cycle can keep you from sleeping or even make you wet the bed. Your body produces lots of urine that is almost all water.

DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which involves insulin problems and high blood sugar. The symptoms can be similar. However, DI is related to how your kidneys handle fluids. It's much less common than DM. Urine and blood tests can show which one you have.

Usually, DI is caused by a problem with your pituitary gland or your kidneys. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. Medicines can often help.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Definition (NCI) A disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of urine, accompanied by excessive thirst. Causes include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone or failure of the kidneys to respond to antidiuretic hormone. It may also be drug-related.
Definition (CSP) metabolic disorder due to injury of the neurohypophyseal system; results in deficient quanity of antidiuretic hormone being released or produced, failure of tubular reabsorption of water in the kidney.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D003919
ICD9 253.5
ICD10 E23.2
SnomedCT 190484000, 15771004
English Diabetes Insipidus, DIABETES INSIPIDUS, Diabetes Insipidus [Disease/Finding], diabetes insipidus, DI, Diabetes insipidus, DI - Diabetes insipidus, Diabetes insipidus (disorder), diabetes; insipidus, Diabetes insipidus, NOS
French DIABETE INSIPIDE, Diabète insipide
Spanish DIABETES INSIPIDA, diabetes insípida (trastorno), diabetes insípida, Diabetes insípida, Diabetes Insípida
German DIABETES INSIPIDUS, Diabetes insipidus
Japanese 尿崩症, ニョウホウショウ
Swedish Diabetes insipidus
Czech diabetes insipidus, Diabetes insipidus, úplavice močová, žíznivka
Finnish Diabetes insipidus
Russian DIABET NESAKHARNYI, ДИАБЕТ НЕСАХАРНЫЙ
Portuguese DIABETES INSIPIDA, Diabetes insípida, Diabetes Insípido
Korean 요붕증
Croatian DIJABETES INSIPIDUS, DIABETES INSIPIDUS
Polish Moczówka prosta
Hungarian Diabetes insipidus
Norwegian Diabetes insipidus
Dutch diabetes; insipidus, Diabetes insipidus, diabetes insipidus, Diabetes spurius, Diabetes, insipidus, Insipidus, diabetes
Italian Diabete insipido