II. Precautions

  1. Healthy adults with varied diets are unlikely to benefit from Multivitamins
  2. Excessive Vitamin intake can result in toxicity or other adverse effects
    1. Vitamin D Toxicity
    2. Iron overload (Hemochromatosis)
    3. Excessive Beta Carotene
      1. Increased Lung Cancer risk in smokers
    4. Excessive Vitamin E
      1. Increased risk of Hemorrhagic Stroke or Prostate Cancer

III. Indications

  1. See Vitamin Deficiency for specific Vitamin indications
  2. See Bariatric Surgery for associated Vitamin Deficiencies
  3. Examples of specific Vitamins to consider for prevention in specific cohorts
    1. Vitamin D Supplementation (e.g. children, adults in northern climates)
    2. Calcium Supplementation (children, older adults)
    3. Folic Acid supplementation (women of child-bearing age)
  4. Examples of specific Vitamins to consider in underlying conditions or risks
    1. Vitamin B12 Supplementation (metform, Proton Pump Inhibitor)

IV. References

  1. (2014) Presc Lett 21(5): 30

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Cost: Medications

vitamin (on 8/17/2016 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
VITAMIN A & D OINTMENT Generic OTC $0.04 per gram
VITAMINS A,C,D & FLUORIDE DROP Generic $0.18 per ml

Ontology: Vitamins (C0042890)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. There are 13 vitamins your body needs. They are vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement.

Each vitamin has specific jobs. If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may develop a deficiency disease. For example, if you don't get enough vitamin D, you could develop rickets. Some vitamins may help prevent medical problems. Vitamin A prevents night blindness.

The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take a daily multivitamin for optimal health. However, high doses of some vitamins can make you sick.

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Sources of vitamins are plant and animal food products and dietary supplements. Some vitamins are made in the human body from food products. Vitamins are either fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) or water-soluble (can dissolve in water). Excess fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue, but excess water-soluble vitamins are removed in the urine. Examples are vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E.
Definition (NCI) A group of organic food substances found in animals and plants in small quantities. They must be supplied in diet or dietary supplement and are essential for normal metabolism.
Definition (NCI_CRCH) A class of micronutrients that regulate and support chemical reactions in the body.
Definition (CSP) diverse group of organic nutrient substances required in trace amounts for normal metabolic function; many are enzyme cofactors or cofactor precursors.
Definition (MSH) Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Concepts Vitamin (T127) , Organic Chemical (T109) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D014815
SnomedCT 87708000, 12968008
LNC LP31395-4
Swedish Vitaminer
Czech vitaminy
Finnish Vitamiinit
Russian VITAMINY, ВИТАМИНЫ
English vitamins (medication), vitamins, VITAMINS, Vitamin, Vitamin products, Vitamin (substance), Vitamin preparation (product), Vitamin preparation, vitamin, Vitamin preparation, NOS, Vitamin, NOS, Vitamin preparation (substance), Vitamins
Croatian VITAMINI
Polish Witaminy
Norwegian Vitaminer
Spanish preparado vitamínico (producto), preparado vitamínico (sustancia), preparado vitamínico, vitamina (sustancia), vitamina, Vitaminas
French Vitamines
German Vitamine
Italian Vitamine
Portuguese Vitaminas

Ontology: Multivitamin preparation (C0301532)

Definition (NCI) A dietary supplement containing all or most of the vitamins that may not be readily available in the diet. Vitamins may be classified according to their solubility either in lipids (vitamins A, D, E, K, F) or in water (vitamins C, B-complex). Present in minute amounts in various foods, vitamins are essential to maintaining normal metabolism and biochemical functions. (NCI04)
Definition (PDQ) A dietary supplement containing all or most of the vitamins that may not be readily available in the diet. Vitamins may be classified according to their solubility either in lipids (vitamins A, D, E, K, F) or in water (vitamins C, B-complex). Present in minute amounts in various foods, vitamins are essential to maintaining normal metabolism and biochemical functions. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43255&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43255&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1654" NCI Thesaurus)
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109) , Vitamin (T127)
SnomedCT 329412009, 329413004, 10632007
English Multivitamin preparations, MULTIVITAMINS, multivitamins (medication), vitamin supplements (medication), vitamin supplements, multivitamins, vitamins multivitamins, multiple vitamins, multivitamin, Multivitamin preparation, Multivitamin, multiple vitamin, Multivitamins (substance), Multivitamin preparations (substance), Multivitamins, Vitamin Supplements (NOS), Multivitamin preparation (product), MULTIVIT, Multivitamin preparation, NOS, Multivitamin preparation (substance)
Spanish preparado multivitamínico (producto), preparado multivitamínico (sustancia), preparado multivitamínico

Ontology: Vitamin supplement (C0681579)

Concepts Food (T168)
SnomedCT 438431000124107
English vitamin supplement, Vitamin supplement (substance), Vitamin supplement