II. Types: Spinal Dysraphism

  1. Spina Bifida Occulta
  2. Spinal Meningocele
    1. Meninges Herniate through posterior Vertebral arches
    2. Most often occurs in low back
    3. Anterior Herniation at Sacrum may also occur
      1. Applies pelvic pressure
      2. May result in Constipation or Bladder abnormality
    4. Usually asymptomatic and covered by full layer skin
  3. Myelomeningocele

III. Exam

  1. Transilluminate along low back Vertebral Column
  2. Complete Neurologic Examination

IV. Imaging

  1. Lumbosacral MRI (preferred, but expensive and requires Conscious Sedation)
  2. Spinal Ultrasound
  3. Lumbosacral XRay

V. Associated conditions

  1. See Myelomeningocele
  2. Hydrocephalus
  3. Diastematomyelia
  4. Tethered spinal cord
  5. Spinal Lipoma
  6. Syringomyelia

VI. Complications

VII. References

  1. Behrman (2000) Nelson Pediatrics, Saunders, p. 1804
  2. Goetz (1999) Neurology, Saunders, p. 515-16

Images: Related links to external sites (from Google)

Ontology: Spinal meningocele (C0009730)

Concepts Congenital Abnormality (T019)
ICD10 Q05
SnomedCT 203979002, 203983002, 65144005, 203978005
English Spinal meningocele NOS, Spinal meningocele of unspecified site, Spinal meningocele-unspec.site, spinal meningocele, Spinal meningocele of unspecified site (disorder), Spinal meningocele NOS (disorder), meningocele (spinal), Congenital spinal meningocele, Congenital spinal meningocele (disorder), Spinal meningocele (disorder), Spinal meningocele
Spanish meningocele espinal (trastorno), meningocele espinal congénito (trastorno), meningocele espinal congénito, meningocele espinal, meningocele, SAI (trastorno), meningocele, SAI, meningocele, de sitio no especificado (trastorno), meningocele, de sitio no especificado

Ontology: Spina Bifida (C0080178)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Spina bifida is the most common disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a type of neural tube defect, which is a problem with the spinal cord or its coverings. It happens if the fetal spinal column doesn't close completely during the first month of pregnancy. There is usually nerve damage that causes at least some paralysis of the legs. Many people with spina bifida will need assistive devices such as braces, crutches or wheelchairs. They may have learning difficulties, urinary and bowel problems or hydrocephalus, a buildup of fluid in the brain.

There is no cure. Treatments focus on the complications, and can include surgery, medicine and physiotherapy. Taking folic acid can reduce the risk of having a baby with spina bifida. It's in most multivitamins. Women who could become pregnant should take it daily.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Definition (MSH) Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
Definition (PSY) Birth defect involving inadequate closure of the bony casement of the spinal cord, through which the spinal membranes, with or without spinal cord tissue, may protrude.
Definition (CSP) developmental anomaly characterized by defective closure of the bony encasement of the spinal cord, through which the cord and meninges may protrude.
Concepts Congenital Abnormality (T019)
MSH D016135
ICD9 741
ICD10 Q05 , Q05.9
SnomedCT 156888006, 204017003, 67531005
English Bifida, Spina, Dysraphia, Spinal, Dysraphias, Spinal, Dysraphism, Spinal, Spinal Dysraphia, Spinal Dysraphias, Spinal Dysraphism, SPINA BIFIDA, Spina bifida, NOS, Spina bifida NOS, Spina bifida, unspecified, Spinal dysrhaphia, Spina Bifida, spina bifida (diagnosis), spina bifida, Cleft spine, Open spine, SPINA BIFIDA CONGENITAL, Spina Bifidas, Dysraphisms, Spinal, Spinal Dysraphisms, Schistorrhachis, Spina bifida NOS (disorder), Spinal Dysraphism [Disease/Finding], spinal dysraphism, Open Spine, Cleft Spine, Spina bifida, Spinal dysraphism, SB - Spina bifida, Spina bifida (disorder), Posterior rachischisis
Portuguese ESPINHA BIFIDA, Disrafismo Espinal, Disrafismo Espinhal, Espinha bífida, Espinha Bífida
Spanish ESPINA BIFIDA, Spina bifida, espina bífida (trastorno), espina bífida, SAI (trastorno), espina bífida, SAI, espina bífida, Espina bífida, Disrafia Espinal, Espina Bífida, Espina Bifida
Swedish Spinal dysrrafi
Japanese ニブンセキツイ, 脊柱披裂, 縫合障害状態, 脊椎披裂, 二分脊椎, 脊髄閉鎖不全症, 脊髄癒合不全
Czech spina bifida, páteř - dysrafie, Spina bifida
Finnish Selkärankahalkio
Italian Spina bifida, Schistorrhachis, Disrafia spinale
Russian DIZRAFICHESKII STATUS, POZVONOCHNIKA RASSHCHELINA, SPINAL'NYI DIZRAFIZM, POZVONOCHNIKA NEZARASHCHENIE, SPINA BIFIDA, ДИЗРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СТАТУС, ПОЗВОНОЧНИКА НЕЗАРАЩЕНИЕ, ПОЗВОНОЧНИКА РАСЩЕЛИНА, СПИНАЛЬНЫЙ ДИЗРАФИЗМ
French SPINA BIFIDA, Spina bifida, Dysraphie spinale, Dysraphisme spinal
German SPINA BIFIDA, Spina bifida, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Spina bifida, Spinale Dysrhaphie, Spinale Spaltbildung
Korean 척추갈림증, 상세불명의 척추갈림증
Croatian KRALJEŽNICA, DISRAFIZAM
Polish Zespół dysraficzny, Dysrafizm, Rozszczep kręgosłupa
Hungarian Spina bifida
Dutch Spina bifida, niet gespecificeerd, spina bifida, Spina bifida