II. Causes: New Onset Secondary Seizure Causes by age

  1. Age under 10 years
    1. Febrile Seizure (under age 5 years)
    2. Idiopathic
    3. Congenital
    4. Birth Injury
    5. Head Trauma (including due to Child Abuse)
    6. Metabolic disorder
      1. Hypoglycemia
      2. Hyponatremia
      3. Hypocalcemia
      4. Hypomagnesemia
  2. Age 10 to 40 years
    1. Idiopathic
    2. Head Trauma
    3. Pre-existing focal brain disease
    4. Drug Withdrawal
  3. Age 40 to 60 years
    1. Brain Tumor
    2. Head Trauma
  4. Age over 60 years
    1. Prior Cerebrovascular Accident (32%)
    2. Brain Tumors (14%)
    3. Subdural Hematoma
    4. CNS Infection (Meningitis or Encephalitis)
    5. Alzheimer's Dementia
    6. Metabolic abnormalities
      1. Uremia
      2. Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia
      3. Hyponatremia
      4. Alcohol Withdrawal

III. Causes: Non-Epileptic Causes of Seizure

  1. Idiopathic (most common, accounts for >80%)
    1. Isolated unprovoked, non-epileptic Seizure
  2. Neurogenic
    1. Brain Tumor
    2. Cerebral dysgenesis
    3. Cerebrovascular degenerative disorders
    4. Head Trauma
  3. Cardiogenic
    1. Syncope
    2. Transient Ischemic Attack
    3. Arrhythmia
    4. Sick Sinus Syndrome
  4. Electrolyte
    1. Hypocalcemia
    2. Hyponatremia (Water Intoxication)
    3. Hypomagnesemia
  5. Metabolic disorders
    1. Abnormal Glucose (especially Hypoglycemia)
    2. Hyperthyroidism (Thyroid Storm)
    3. Vitamin B6 deficiency
    4. Acute Renal Failure (Uremia)
    5. Acute Liver Failure
  6. Medications (especially if in overdosage)
    1. See Toxin-Induced Seizure Causes
    2. Antidepressants and Antipsychotics
    3. Beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g. Penicillins)
    4. Cyclosporine (Sandimmune)
    5. Interferon
    6. Isoniazid (INH)
    7. Lithium
    8. Meperidine (Demerol)
    9. Tacrolimus
    10. Theophylline
    11. Tramadol (Ultram)
    12. Quinolone antibiotics
  7. Drug Withdrawal
    1. Alcohol Withdrawal
    2. Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
    3. Cocaine withdrawal
    4. Barbiturate withdrawal
    5. Meperidine withdrawal
  8. Drug or Metal toxicity
    1. Cocaine
    2. D-Amphetamine
    3. Nitrous Oxide
    4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
    5. Mercury Poisoning
    6. Lead Poisoning
    7. Intravenous Contrast material
  9. Infectious disease
    1. Gram NegativeSepsis
    2. Viral Meningitis or Viral Encephalitis
    3. Bacterial Meningitis
    4. Cysticercosis
  10. Miscellaneous
    1. Fever (see Febrile Convulsions)
    2. Hyperthermia
    3. Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizure (or Pseudoseizure)

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