II. Pathophysiology

  1. Estrogen withdrawal precipitates Migraine Headaches
  2. Headaches often improve in pregnancy

III. Symptoms

  1. Headache onset 2 days prior to Menses
  2. Headache lasts until final day of Menses

IV. Associated conditions

V. Management: Acute

  1. See Migraine Headache Management
  2. Most effective agents used to abort Menstrual Migraine Headaches (with current body of evidence)
    1. Sumatriptan
    2. Rizatriptan
    3. Mefanamic Acid (Ponstel)

VI. Prevention

  1. Protocol: Standard Migraine Prophylaxis
    1. See Migraine Prophylaxis
    2. Propranolol
    3. Tricyclic Antidepressants
    4. Topiramate
  2. Protocol: "Mini-Prophylaxis"
    1. Start 3 days prior to expected first day Menses
    2. Continue until Menses is finished (up to 5-6 days total)
    3. Medication Option 1: Continuous use of Migraine Abortive Treatment
      1. Risk of Analgesic Overuse Headache
      2. Naprosyn 500 mg orally twice daily
        1. Alternatives: Mefenamic acid (Ponsetl), especially if Dysmenorrhea coexists
      3. Frovatriptan (Frova) or Naratriptan (Amerge) taken around the clock perimenstrually
        1. Alternatives include Ergotamine 1 tab bid (significant adverse effects) or Migranal (DHE Nasal)
      4. Consider Magnesium Supplementation
    4. Medication Option 2: Hormonal
      1. Do not use Estrogens for Migraine with Aura, or if Hypertension or Tobacco abuse
        1. See CVA precautions below
      2. Low estradiol preparations (20 mcg or less)
        1. Loestrin 24 Fe
        2. Microgestin 1/20
      3. Estradiol patch started 2-3 days prior to Menses
        1. Climara 1-2 patches over 1 week
        2. Estraderm or Vivelle 2-4 patches over 1 week
      4. Consider adding Methyltestosterone 20 mg
  3. Protocol: Continuous OCP cycling with low Estrogen pills
    1. Options
      1. See Seasonal Contraception
      2. Examples: Lybrel, Lo-Seasonique, Xulane patch, NuvaRing
    2. Counsel patients on Cerebrovascular Accident risk
      1. Cerebrovascular Accident Risk in Women
      2. Stop Oral Contraceptives immediately if development of Migraines with aura or other changes
      3. Ethinyl Estradiol doses of 20 mcg or less appears safe if no contraindications (see below)
    3. Contraindications
      1. Migraine with Aura
      2. Migraine without Aura and one of the following
        1. Age >35 years old (relative contraindication)
        2. Comorbid Tobacco abuse
        3. Hypertension

VII. Complications: Cerebrovascular Accident

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Ontology: Menstrual migraine (C0269226)

Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
ICD9 346.4
ICD10 G43.829
SnomedCT 198407008, 23186000
English Migraine - menstrual, menstrual migraine, menstrual migraine (diagnosis), menstrual migraines, Migraine;menstrual, Menstrual migraine NOS, Menstrual migraine, Menstrual migraine (disorder), menstrual; migraine, migraine; menstrual
Dutch menstruele migraine, menstrueel; migraine, migraine; menstrueel
French Migraine menstruelle
German Menstruationsmigraene
Italian Emicrania mestruale
Portuguese Enxaqueca menstrual
Spanish Migraña menstrual, cefalea menstrual, jaqueca menstrual (trastorno), jaqueca menstrual, migraña menstrual
Japanese 月経性片頭痛, ゲッケイセイヘンズツウ
Czech Menstruační migréna
Hungarian Menstruatiós migraine