Pulmonology Book

Pneumomediastinum

Pneumothorax

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Simple Pneumothorax

Aka: Simple Pneumothorax, Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Pneumothorax
  1. Also See
    1. Tension Pneumothorax
    2. Open Pneumothorax
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Typical patient is a tall, thin male
    2. Age under 40 years (80%)
    3. Presentation within 24 hours (70%)
  3. Risk Factors
    1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    2. Asthma
    3. Bronchitis
    4. Menstruation
  4. Symptoms
    1. Chest Pain
      1. Sudden sharp pain
      2. Radiates to back or shoulders
    2. Variable cardiopulmonary symptoms including Dyspnea
  5. Signs
    1. Examination may be unremarkable
    2. Keep high index of suspicion
      1. COPD patients
      2. Tall, thin males
    3. Unilateral absent breath sounds
    4. Hyperresonant to percussion
    5. Coin Test
  6. Radiology: Chest XRay Expiratory Film
    1. Enhances Pneumothorax (compresses collapsed lung)
    2. Does not enlarge Pneumothorax
  7. Management
    1. Observation for small Pneumothorax
      1. Volume: <20%
      2. Apical depth: <1 cm
    2. Needle aspiration
      1. Successful in 70% of cases
    3. Chest Tube Indications
      1. Large Pneumothorax
      2. Decompensating patient status
      3. Positive Pressure Ventilations used

Pneumothorax (C0032326)

Definition (MSH) An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process, or be introduced deliberately ( = PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Definition (CSP) accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process.
Definition (NCI) Pneumothorax; abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 512, 512.8
MSH D011030
English Pneumothorax, pneumothorax disorder
Spanish neumotorax
Parent Concepts Lung diseases (C0024115), Respiration Disorders (C0035204), Pleura (C0032225), Pleural Diseases (C0032226), Other respiratory system diseases NOS (C0029582), Non-Neoplastic Pleural Disorder (C1335034), Pneumothorax (C0032326), Disorder of pleura and pleural cavity (C1536731), Duplicate concept (C1274013)
Sources AOD , COSTAR, CSP, CST, DXP, ICD9CM, LCH, MSH, MTH, MTHICD9, NCI, NDFRT, OMIM, QMR, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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