II. Indications: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

III. Dosing

  1. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Treatment
    1. Parenteral: 4 mg/kg/day IV or IM
  2. Pneumocystis prophylaxis
    1. Nebulized (NebuPent): 300 mg nebulized every 4 weeks

IV. Adverse Reactions

  1. Neutropenia (15%)
  2. Thrombocytopenia
  3. Hypocalcemia
  4. Nephrotoxicity and Renal Insufficiency
  5. Hepatitis
  6. Pancreatitis
  7. Dysglycemia (20% treated for 3 weeks)
    1. Pentamidine causes pancreatic islet cell toxicity
    2. Hypoglycemia
    3. Hyperglycemia
  8. Gastrointestinal Upset (Nausea or Vomiting)
  9. Rash

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Ontology: Pentamidine (C0030863)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The active ingredient in a drug used to treat infections caused by certain microorganisms. It is also being studied in the treatment of melanoma. It prevents DNA from being copied and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antifungal agent, a type of antiprotozoal agent, and a type of PRL phosphatase inhibitor.
Definition (NCI) A synthetic derivative of amidine with antiprotozoal and antifungal activities. Although the precise mode of action of pentamidine is unclear, it appears to interact directly with the pathogen genome by binding to AT-rich regions of duplex DNA and the minor groove of DNA, thereby interfering with DNA replication. (NCI04)
Definition (MSH) Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Definition (CSP) 4,4-diamidino-alpha,omega-dephenoxypentane (HCl); effective against Pneumocystis carinii, a cause of AIDS related pneumonia.
Definition (PDQ) A synthetic derivative of amidine with antiprotozoal and antifungal activities. Although the precise mode of action of pentamidine is unclear, it appears to interact directly with the pathogen genome by binding to AT-rich regions of duplex DNA and the minor groove of DNA, thereby interfering with DNA replication. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40324&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40324&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C731" NCI Thesaurus)
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D010419
SnomedCT 31692006, 372699006
English Pentamidin, pentamidine, Benzenecarboximidamide, 4,4'-(1,5-pentanediylbis(oxy))bis-, Aerosolized Pentamadine, pentamidine (medication), Pentamidine [Chemical/Ingredient], pentamidin, PENTAMIDINE, Pentamidine (product), Pentamidine (substance), Pentamidine
Swedish Pentamidin
Czech pentamidin
Finnish Pentamidiini
Russian PENTAMIDIN, PENTAMIDINA IZOTIONAT, ПЕНТАМИДИН, ПЕНТАМИДИНА ИЗОТИОНАТ
Japanese イセチオン酸ペンタミジン, ペンタミジン
Polish Pentamidyna
Portuguese Isetionato de Pentamidina, Isotionato de Pentamidina, Pentamidina
Spanish pentamidina (producto), pentamidina (sustancia), pentamidina, Pentamidina
French Pentamidine
German Pentamidin
Italian Pentamidina

Ontology: NebuPent (C0722005)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D010419
English pentamidine aerosol, pentamidine aerosol (medication), Nebupent, American Pharmaceutical Partners Brand 1 of Pentamidine Isethionate, NebuPent

Ontology: Pentam (C1518952)

Concepts Organic Chemical (T109) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D010419
English Pentam, American Pharmaceutical Partners Brand 2 of Pentamidine Isethionate