III. Mechanism of action

  1. Inhibits cell wall synthesis

IV. Penicillin Resistance Mechanisms

  1. Bacterial Production of Beta lactamase
    1. Staphylococcus aureus
    2. Staphylococcus epidermidis
    3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    4. Moraxella catarrhalis
  2. Bacterial Alteration in Penicillin-binding proteins
    1. Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)

VI. Dosing: Child

  1. Penicillin G
    1. Standard Dosing
      1. Penicillin G 100-150k U/Kg/day IV/IM divided q4-6h
    2. Group B Streptococcus or Meningitis
      1. Penicillin G 250k-300k U/Kg/day IV/IM divided q4h
    3. HaemophilusInfluenzae Meningitis
      1. Penicillin G 400,000 units/kg/day IV divided q4h
  2. Benzathine Penicillin (Bicillin LA)
    1. Weight <27 kg: 0.3 to 0.6 Million Units IM for 1 dose
    2. Weight >27 kg: 0.9 to 1.2 Million Units IM for 1 dose
  3. Penicillin V (Pen-Vee K)
    1. Supplied: 125 or 250 mg/5ml elixir
    2. Dosing: 25-50 mg/kg/day divided qid

VII. Adverse Effects

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Cost: Medications

PENICILLIN VK (on 2/19/2015 at Target.com)
PENICILLIN VK 125 MG/5 ML Solution #90 for $10.00 $0.11 each
PENICILLIN VK 250 MG Tablet #90 for $10.00 $0.11 each
PENICILLIN VK 250 MG/5 ML Solution #90 for $10.00 $0.11 each
penicillin (on 8/17/2016 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
PENICILLIN VK 125 MG/5 ML SOLN Generic $0.05 per ml
PENICILLIN VK 250 MG TABLET Generic $0.15 each
PENICILLIN VK 250 MG/5 ML SOLN Generic $0.06 per ml
PENICILLIN VK 500 MG TABLET Generic $0.23 each
bicillin (on 6/1/2016 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
BICILLIN L-A 1,200,000 UNITS $58.38 per ml
BICILLIN L-A 2,400,000 UNITS $59.13 per ml

Ontology: Penicillins (C0030842)

Definition (NCI) Any beta-lactam antibiotic derived from Pencillium fungi with bactericidal activity. Penicillin antibiotics bind to and inactivate penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall, eventually causing cell lysis.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A drug that is used to treat infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called antibiotics.
Definition (MSH) A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Definition (CSP) group of natural or semisynthetic antibacterial antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group; they exert a bacteriocidal as well as bacteriostatic effect on susceptible bacteria by interfering with the final stages of the synthesis of cell wall peptidoglycan.
Concepts Antibiotic (T195) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D010406
SnomedCT 373270004, 6369005
English Penicillins, Antibiotics, Penicillin, Penicillin Antibiotics, penicillin (medication), penicillin, Penicillins [Chemical/Ingredient], penicillins, penicillin antibiotic, penicillin antibiotics, BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS, PENICILLINS, Penicillin, Penicillin -class of antibiotic- (product), Penicillin -class of antibiotic- (substance), Penicillin -class of antibiotic-, Penicillin Antibiotic
Swedish Penicilliner
Czech peniciliny
Finnish Penisilliinit
Russian PENITSILLINY, ПЕНИЦИЛЛИНЫ
Japanese ペニシリン系抗生物質, ペニシリン類, 抗生物質-ペニシリン系, ペニシリン
Croatian PENICILINI
Polish Penicyliny
Spanish penicilina (clase de antibiótico) (producto), penicilina (clase de antibiótico) (sustancia), penicilina (clase de antibiótico), Penicilinas, Antibióticos Penicilinos
French Pénicillines
German Antibiotika, Penicillin-, Penicilline
Italian Penicilline
Portuguese Antibióticos Penicilina, Penicilinas

Ontology: benzathine (C0053153)

Concepts Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH C010044
English benzathine, N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine

Ontology: Natural penicillin (C0304323)

Concepts Antibiotic (T195) , Organic Chemical (T109)
SnomedCT 86536001, 373291007
English penicillin natural, natural penicillin, Natural penicillin (product), Natural penicillin (substance), Natural penicillin, Natural penicillin, NOS
Spanish penicilina natural (producto), penicilina natural (sustancia), penicilina natural

Ontology: Bicillin (C0729074)

Concepts Antibiotic (T195) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D010401
English bicillin, Bicillin
Czech Bicillin