II. Pathophysiology

  1. Mechanism
    1. SEB is one of several staphylococcal enterotoxins
      1. Coagulase positive staphylococci
  2. Transmission
    1. Foodborne Illness
      1. Church picnic or community events
      2. Could contaminate small volume water supply
    2. Aerosolized Biological warfare agent
      1. Incapacitating Agent
        1. Low mortality
        2. Can render >80% exposed incapacitated x1-2 weeks
  3. Symptom Onset
    1. Occurs 3-12 hours after aerosol exposure

III. Symptoms and Signs

  1. General
    1. Symptoms occur in >80% of exposed clinically ill
    2. Fever to 103 to 105 F for 2-5 days
    3. Chills
    4. Headache
    5. Myalgia
    6. Conjunctival injection
    7. Higher exposure may lead to Septic Shock, death
  2. Aerosolized exposure (Biological Weapon)
    1. Nonproductive cough for up to 4 weeks
    2. Retrosternal Chest Pain
    3. Shortness of Breath
  3. Ingestion exposure (Foodborne Illness)
    1. Nausea or Vomiting
    2. Diarrhea

IV. Radiology: Chest XRay

  1. Normal except in severe cases

V. Differential Diagnosis

VI. Prevention

  1. Protective mask
  2. No human Vaccine

VII. Course

  1. Generally low mortality
  2. Clinical illness persists 1-2 weeks

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Ontology: enterotoxin B, staphylococcal (C0059386)

Definition (NCI) A bacterial enterotoxin with potential immunostimulatory activity. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a gram positive superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is a potent stimulator of T-cell activation. SEB binds directly to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and the V beta region of the T-cell receptor (TCR), leading to an amplified T-cell response. In response to SEB, both CD4+ and CD8+ cells proliferate, secrete cytokines and demonstrate enhanced cytotoxic activity against a broad range of antigens. Co-administration of SEB with interleukin-2 (IL-2) by direct injection into tumor cells, may induce clonal T-cell expansion and potentiate apoptosis of tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor growth.
Concepts Hazardous or Poisonous Substance (T131) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Immunologic Factor (T129) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH C031818
English staph enterotoxin B, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, enterotoxin B, staphylococcal, SEB superantigen, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B, staph enterotoxin b, staphylococcal enterotoxin b, SEB, Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B