I. Definition

  1. Serum glycoproteins associated with cancer

II. Background

  1. Tumor Markers have very specific indications
  2. Tumor Markers should not be used for screening
    1. PSA is an exception, but its use is controversial
    2. Markers for screening have not improved survival
  3. Limited efficacy outside very specific populations
    1. High False Positive Rate in general population
    2. High False Negative Rate in early cancers

III. Indications

  1. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
    1. Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor monitoring
    2. Cirrhosis with liver mass (Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
  2. Cancer Antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29)
    1. Stage II or III Breast Cancer Monitoring
  3. Cancer Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9)
    1. Specific pancreatic mass evaluation
  4. Cancer Antigen 125 (CA 125)
    1. Postmenopausal pelvic mass evaluation
    2. Ovarian Cancer monitoring
  5. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
    1. Stage II or III Colorectal Cancer monitoring
  6. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin - beta subunit (bHCG)
    1. Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor monitoring
    2. Choriocarcinoma diagnosis and monitoring
  7. Microglobulin -beta 2 subunit (b2-M)
    1. Multiple Myeloma diagnosis and monitoring
  8. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
    1. Prostate Cancer Screening and monitoring
    2. Adenocarcinoma in men with unknown primary

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