II. Physiology: Pathways

  1. Initiators of the Clotting Cascade
    1. Intrinsic Clotting Pathway
      1. Initiated by Negatively charged surface
    2. Extrinsic Clotting Pathway
      1. Initiated by disrupted cell membranes
  2. Common Clotting Pathway follows above initiators
    1. Antagonized by Clotting Pathway Inhibition
  3. Factors
    1. Activation
      1. All of these Clotting Factors (both pro-coagulant and Anticoagulant) are Vitamin K Dependent
      2. Vitamin K is required for carboxylation of terminal ends of coagulation proteins
      3. Without carboxylation, Clotting Factors/proteins are not activated and Clotting Cascade does not occur
      4. Warfarin inhibits the cyclic interconversion of Vitamin K to a reduced form, thereby keeping it and dependent factors inactive
    2. Procoagulant Factors (Mnemonic: 1972)
      1. Factor 10 (half life 36 hours)
      2. Factor 9 (half life 24 hours)
      3. Factor 7 (half life 7 hours)
      4. Factor 2 (half life 50 hours)
    3. Anticoagulant Factors
      1. Protein C (half life 8 hours)
      2. Protein S (half life 30 hours)

III. Labs

  1. Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
    1. Measures intrinsic pathway
    2. Prolonged by
      1. Factor VIII Deficiency (Hemophilia A)
      2. Factor IX Deficiency (Hemophilia B)
  2. Prothrombin Time (PT)
    1. Measures extrinsic pathway
  3. Affecting both ProTime and Partial Thromboplastin Time
    1. Factor X
    2. Factor V
    3. Prothrombin
    4. Fibrinogen
  4. Thrombin Time
    1. Measures only common pathway

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Ontology: Blood Coagulation Factor (C0005789)

Definition (MSH) Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
Definition (CSP) class of endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
Definition (NCI) Factors in the blood that are essential for blood coagulation. The absence or mutation of these factors can lead to hemophilia and blood clotting disorders.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Biologically Active Substance(T123)
MSH D001779
SnomedCT 32877006, 350475008
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French Facteurs de la coagulation sanguine, Facteurs de la coagulation, Facteurs de la coagulation du sang, Facteurs de coagulation
Swedish Blodkoagulationsfaktorer
Czech faktory krevní koagulace
Finnish Hyytymistekijät
Russian SVERTYVANIIA KROVI FAKTORY, FAKTORY SVERTYVANIIA KROVI, СВЕРТЫВАНИЯ КРОВИ ФАКТОРЫ, ФАКТОРЫ СВЕРТЫВАНИЯ КРОВИ
Italian Fattore di coagulazione del sangue, Fattore di coagulazione, Fattori di coagulazione, Fattori di coagulazione del sangue
Croatian KRV, KOAGULACIJSKI FAKTORI
Spanish factor de coagulación, factor de la coagulación de la sangre, factor de la coagulación de la sangre (sustancia), factor de la coagulación sanguínea (producto), factor de la coagulación sanguínea, Factores de Coagulacion Sanguinea, Factores de Coagulacion, Factores de Coagulación Sanguínea, Factores de Coagulación
Polish Czynniki krzepnięcia krwi
Japanese 凝固因子, 血液凝固因子
German Blutgerinnungsfaktoren, Gerinnungsfaktoren
Portuguese Fatores de Coagulação, Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea