II. Physiology

  1. Tyrosine Kinase
    1. Key enzyme in molecular signaling pathway
    2. Transfers a phosphate from ATP to a protein's tyrosine amino acid
  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR, HER1)
    1. Tyrosine Kinase that is activated by specific Ligands
    2. Triggers cascade that leads to cell proliferation, invasion and migration
    3. Target for cancer treatments (e.g. Erbitux, Vectibix, Tarceva, Iressa, Tykerb)
  3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
    1. Angiogenesis signaling protein
    2. Binds to VEGF receptors on Tyrosine Kinases to initiate Angiogenesis
    3. Target in some Targeted Cancer Therapy (e.g. Avastin)
  4. HER2/neu
    1. EGFR related Tyrosine Kinase important in Breast Cancer
    2. Overexpression of HER2/neu may predict worse prognosis and cancer recurrence
    3. Targeted Cancer Therapy examples include Herceptin and Tykerb

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Ontology: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (C0034802)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The protein found on the surface of some cells and to which epidermal growth factor binds, causing the cells to divide. It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
Definition (NCI) Epidermal growth factor receptor (1210 aa, ~134 kDa) is encoded by the human EGFR gene. This protein plays a role in cell-cell adhesion, cell migration, cell proliferation and signal transduction.
Definition (MSH) A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Concepts Receptor (T192) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Enzyme (T126)
MSH D011958
SnomedCT 86960007
LNC LP18396-9, MTHU004296
English EGF Receptor, Urogastrone Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, TGF-alpha Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinase, RECEPT EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR, RECEPT TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA, RECEPT EGF, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA RECEPT, ERBB PROTO ONCOGENE PROTEIN 001, C ERBB PROTEIN 001, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPT, EGF RECEPT, RECEPT TGF ALPHA, UROGASTRONE RECEPT, RECEPT UROGASTRONE, TGF ALPHA RECEPTOR, Epidermal growth factor-urogastrone receptor site, Proto-Oncogene Protein, erbB-1, erbB 1 Proto Oncogene Protein, erbB-1 Proto-Oncogene Protein, Receptor, Transforming-Growth Factor alpha, Transforming Growth Factor alpha Receptor, Receptor, TGF alpha, Receptor, TGF-alpha, Receptor, EGF, Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor, Receptor, Urogastrone, Receptors, Epidermal Growth Factor-Urogastrone, Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor [Chemical/Ingredient], Receptors, Epidermal Growth Factor, egf receptors, egfr, epidermal factor growth receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor alpha, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Receptor Tyrosine-Protein Kinase erbB-1, EC 2.7.10.1, Proto-Oncogene c-erbB-1, c erbB 1 Protein, c-erbB-1 Protein, Epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB1, HER1, Proto oncogene c ErbB 1 Protein, ErbB-1 Receptor, Receptor, ErbB 1, Resceptor Tyrosine-protein Kinase erbB-1, Receptor, ErbB-1, Protein, Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-1, Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-1 Protein, c-ErbB-1 Protein, Proto-oncogene, Resceptor Tyrosine protein Kinase erbB 1, Epidermal growth factor-urogastrone receptor (substance), Epidermal growth factor-urogastrone receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR, c-erbB-1, erbB-1, ERBB Protein
Swedish Receptor, epidermal tillväxtfaktor
Czech receptor epidermálního růstového faktoru, EGFR
Finnish Epidermaalisen kasvutekijän reseptori
Italian Chinasi dei recettori del fattore di sviluppo epidermico, Proteina erbB-1 proto-oncogena, Recettore alfa-TGF, Recettore per il fattore trasformante di crescita alfa, Recettori del fattore urogastrone di sviluppo epidermico, Recettore EGF, Proteina tirosina-chinasi dei recettori del fattore di sviluppo epidermico, Proteina c-erbB-1, Recettore urogastrone, Recettori del fattore di sviluppo epidermico
Russian RETSEPTORY EPIDERMAL'NOGO FAKTORA ROSTA-UROGASTRONA, RETSEPTOR EPIDERMAL'NOGO FAKTORA ROSTA, EGF-URO RETSEPTORY, PROTEIN-TIROZIN-KINAZA RETSEPTORA EPIDERMAL'NOGO FAKTORA ROSTA, EGF-RETSEPTORA KINAZA, EPIDERMAL'NOGO FAKTORA ROSTA-UROGASTRONA RETSEPTORY, UROGASTRONA RETSEPTORY, EPIDERMAL'NOGO FAKTORA ROSTA RETSEPTORA PROTEIN-TIROZIN-KINAZA, EPIDERMAL'NOGO FAKTORA ROSTA RETSEPTORY, EGF-URO РЕЦЕПТОРЫ, EGF-РЕЦЕПТОРА КИНАЗА, ПРОТЕИН-ТИРОЗИН-КИНАЗА РЕЦЕПТОРА ЭПИДЕРМАЛЬНОГО ФАКТОРА РОСТА, РЕЦЕПТОРЫ ЭПИДЕРМАЛЬНОГО ФАКТОРА РОСТА-УРОГАСТРОНА, РЕЦЕПТОР ЭПИДЕРМАЛЬНОГО ФАКТОРА РОСТА, УРОГАСТРОНА РЕЦЕПТОРЫ, ЭПИДЕРМАЛЬНОГО ФАКТОРА РОСТА РЕЦЕПТОРА ПРОТЕИН-ТИРОЗИН-КИНАЗА, ЭПИДЕРМАЛЬНОГО ФАКТОРА РОСТА РЕЦЕПТОРЫ, ЭПИДЕРМАЛЬНОГО ФАКТОРА РОСТА-УРОГАСТРОНА РЕЦЕПТОРЫ
German ERBB PROTO ONKOGENPRODUKTE 001, ERBB PROTO ONKOGEN PROTEIN 001, PROTO ONKOGEN PROTEIN C ERBB 001, C ERBB PROTEIN 001, EGF-Rezeptor-Kinase, EGF-URO-Rezeptoren, Epidermale Wachstumsfaktorrezeptor-Kinase, Epidermale Wachstumsfaktorrezeptor-Protein-Tyrosin-Kinase, Rezeptoren, Epidermiswachstumsfaktor-Urogastron-, Transformierender Wachstums-Faktor-Alpha-Rezeptor, EGF-Rezeptor, Epidermale Wachstumsfaktorrezeptor, Rezeptor, EGF-, Rezeptor, TGF-alpha, Rezeptor, Urogastron-, Rezeptor, epidermaler Wachstumsfakor-, Rezeptor, transformierender Wachstumsfaktor Alpha, TGF-alpha-Rezeptor, Urogastronrezeptor, Proto-Onkogen-Protein, c-erbB-1, c-erbB-1-Protein, erbB-1-Proto-Onkogen-Protein, erbB-1-Proto-Onkogenprodukte
Croatian RECEPTOR, EPIDERMALNI ČIMBENIK RASTA, RECEPTOR, EPIDERMALNI FAKTOR RASTA
Polish Receptor kinazy białkowo-tyrozynowej czynnika wzrostu naskórka, Receptory urogastronu, Receptory czynnika wzrostu naskórka-urogastron, Białko proto-onkogenne erbb-1, Receptor naskórkowego czynnika wzrostu, Receptor EGF, Receptor tgf-alfa, Receptor czynnika wzrostu alfa transformującego, Receptor czynnika wzrostu naskórka
Japanese c-erbB-1癌原遺伝子蛋白質, erbB-1癌原遺伝子蛋白質, EGF-URO受容体, EGF-ウロガストロン受容体, EGF受容体, c-erbB-1蛋白質, ウロガストロン受容体, 上皮成長因子ウロガストロン受容体, 上皮成長因子受容体, 受容体-EGF-ウロガストロン, 受容体-EGF, 形質転換成長因子アルファ受容体, EGFレセプター, TGFα受容体, TGFアルファ受容体, 上皮成長因子受容体蛋白質チロシンキナーゼ, 受容体-TGFα, 受容体-ウロガストロン, 受容体-上皮成長因子, 受容体-上皮成長因子ウロガストロン, 癌原遺伝子蛋白質c-erbB-1, 癌原遺伝子蛋白質erbB-1
Portuguese Proteína Tirosina Quinase Receptora do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico, Proteína-Tirosina Quinase Receptora do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico, Proteína c-erbB-1, Proteína do Proto-Oncogene erbB-1, Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico, Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico Proteína-Tirosina Quinase, Receptores de Crescimento Epidérmico Fator Urograstrona, Receptor de TGF-alfa, Receptor de Urogastrona, Receptor do EGF, Receptor do Fator Transformador do Crescimento alfa
Spanish receptor de factor de crecimiento epidérmico - urogastrona (sustancia), receptor de factor de crecimiento epidérmico - urogastrona, Proteína c-erbB-1, Proteína de Protooncogén erbB-1, Receptores de Crecimiento Epidérmico Factor Urogastrona, Receptor del Factor de Crecimiento Epidérmico, Proteína-Tirosina Quinasa Receptora de Factor de Crecimiento Epidérmico, Receptor de TGF-alfa, Receptor de Urogastrona, Receptor del EGF, Receptor del Factor Transformador de Crecimiento alfa
French EGF, récepteur, Facteur croissance épidermique, récepteur, Protéine proto-oncogène erbB-1, Récepteur facteur croissance épidermique

Ontology: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (C0078058)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A substance made by cells that stimulates new blood vessel formation.
Definition (NCI) Vascular endothelial growth factor A (232 aa, ~27 kDa) is encoded by the human VEGFA gene. This protein plays a role in both cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
Definition (MSH) The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D042461
German Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, VEGF-A, Vasculotropin, VEGF, Vaskulärer Permeabilitätsfaktor, Vaskulärer endothelialer Wachstumsfaktor A, Vaskulärer endothelialer Wachstumsfaktor
Swedish Vaskulär endotelcellstillväxtfaktor A
Czech vaskulární endoteliální růstový faktor A, vaskulární endoteliální růstový faktor, vaskulární endoteliální růstový faktor-A
Finnish Verisuonten endoteelikasvutekijä A
Russian KROVENOSNYKH SOSUDOV ENDOTELIAL'NYI FAKTOR-A ROSTA, SOSUDISTYI ENDOTELIAL'NYI FAKTOR ROSTA A, KROVENOSNYKH SOSUDOV ENDOTELIAL'NYI FAKTOR ROSTA, KROVENOSNYKH SOSUDOV ENDOTELIAL'NYI FAKTOR ROSTA A, КРОВЕНОСНЫХ СОСУДОВ ЭНДОТЕЛИАЛЬНЫЙ ФАКТОР-A РОСТА, КРОВЕНОСНЫХ СОСУДОВ ЭНДОТЕЛИАЛЬНЫЙ ФАКТОР РОСТА A, КРОВЕНОСНЫХ СОСУДОВ ЭНДОТЕЛИАЛЬНЫЙ ФАКТОР РОСТА, СОСУДИСТЫЙ ЭНДОТЕЛИАЛЬНЫЙ ФАКТОР РОСТА A
Italian VEGF, VEGF-A, Fattore di permeabilità vascolare, Vasculotropina, Fattore di crescita dell'endotelio vascolare, Fattore di crescita dell'endotelio vascolare A
English Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A [Chemical/Ingredient], vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), vegf, VEGF, Vasculotropin, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Vascular Permeability Factor, VEGF-A, Permeability Factor, Vascular, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A, VPF, VEGF148
Polish Czynnik wzrostu naczyniowo-śródbłonkowy A, Czynnik wzrostu naczyniowo-śródbłonkowy, Naczyniowo-śródbłonkowy czynnik wzrostu, VEGF
Croatian VASKULARNI ENDOTEL, FAKTOR RASTA A
Japanese 血管内皮成長因子A, 血管内皮増殖因子A
French Facteur de croissance endothéliale vasculaire, Facteur de croissance de l'endothélium vasculaire, Facteur de croissance endothéliale vasculaire A, Facteur de croissance endothéliale vasculaire de type A, Facteur de perméabilité vasculaire, Vasculotropine, VEGF-A, VEGF, Facteur de croissance de l'endothélium vasculaire A, Facteur de croissance de l'endothélium vasculaire de type A
Portuguese Fator-A de Crescimento Endotelial Vascular, Fator de Crescimento Endotelial Vascular, Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular, Fator-A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular, Fator de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
Spanish Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular, Factor-A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular, Factor de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular