I. See Also

II. Definitions

  1. Normal Cycles
    1. Cycle Duration: 28 days (21-35 days)
    2. Days of Flow: 4.6 days (2-8 days)
    3. Estimated Blood Loss: 35 ml per cycle (20-80 ml)
  2. Abnormal Cycle Length
    1. Polymenorrhea: less than 21 day cycles
    2. Oligomenorrhea: greater than 35 day cycles
    3. Metrorrhagia: Irregularly frequent Menses
  3. Abnormal Menstrual Flow
    1. Menorrhagia (Hypermenorrhea)
      1. Over 80 cc blood loss per cycle
      2. Change pad or tampon every 1-2 hours
      3. Blood clots >1 inch (2.5 cm)
      4. More than 7 days of menstrual flow
    2. Menometrorrhagia (Metrorrhagia and Menorrhagia)
      1. Prolonged, irregularly frequent, heavy Menses
  4. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
    1. Excessive, prolonged, or irregular uterine bleeding

III. Physiology: Ages of Menstrual Landmarks

  1. Thelarche: (10.2 to 11.3 years)
    1. Precedes Menarche by 24 months
  2. Menarche: 12.8 years (9.1 to 17.7 years)
    1. Precedes regular Menses by 12 months
    2. Anovulatory Cycles predominate initially
      1. Years 1 to 2 after Menarche: 55-85% of cycles
      2. Years 3 to 4 after Menarche: 30-50% of cycles
      3. Years 5 to 6 after Menarche: <20% of cycles
  3. Menopause: 51.4 years (48 to 55 years)

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Ontology: Menarche (C0025274)

Definition (GO) The beginning of the menstrual cycle; the first menstrual cycle in an individual. [GOC:curators, PMID:16311040]
Definition (NCI) Onset of menses.
Definition (MSH) The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
Concepts Organism Function (T040)
MSH D008572
SnomedCT 20016009
English Menarche, menarche (symptom), menarche, first menstrual cycle, Menarche (finding)
Czech menarche, menstruační cyklus první, Menarché, první menstruace, menarché
Finnish Menarke
French Ménarche, Première menstruation, Ménarque
Russian MENSTRUATSII NACHALO, MENARKHE, PERVOI MENSTRUATSII VREMIA NASTUPLENIIA, MENSTRUAL'NOI FUNKTSII NACHALO, МЕНАРХЕ, МЕНСТРУАЛЬНОЙ ФУНКЦИИ НАЧАЛО, МЕНСТРУАЦИИ НАЧАЛО, ПЕРВОЙ МЕНСТРУАЦИИ ВРЕМЯ НАСТУПЛЕНИЯ
Swedish Menarke
Japanese ショケイ, 初経
Croatian MENARHA
Polish Rozpoczęcie miesiączkowania, Pierwsza miesiączka
Hungarian Menarche
Spanish Menarca, menarca (hallazgo), menarca, Menarquia
Dutch menarche, Menarche
German Menarche
Italian Menarca
Portuguese Menarca

Ontology: Menstruation Disturbances (C0025345)

Definition (MSH) Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Definition (CSP) variations of menstruation or the menstrual cycle which may be indicative of disease.
Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
MSH D008599
SnomedCT 156033006, 9649008, 198432005, 3148008, 266606008, 386803005, 266675008, 156057006, 156047005, 156040007, 386804004, 289896006
English Disorder, Menstruation, Disorders, Menstruation, Menstruation Disorder, Menstruation Disorders, MENSTRUAL DISORDER, menstrual cycle disorder, Menstruation disorder, Menstruation disorder NOS, Menoxenia, MENSTRUATION DIS, Menstrual disorders NOS, Menstruation Disturbances, abnormal menstruation, abnormal periods, abnormal menses, abnormal menses (symptom), Menstruation abnormal, Disorder menstrual, Menstrual disorder NOS, Menstrual disturbance NOS, Disturbance, Menstruation, Disturbances, Menstruation, Menstruation Disturbance, Menstrual disorders, Menstruation Disturbances [Disease/Finding], disorder periods, cycle disorders menstrual, menstruation problem, menstrual disturbance, menoxenia, period problems, disorders menstrual, Problem;menstrual, problem period, disorder menstruation, disorders period, menstrual disorders, problem menstrual, disturbances menstrual, menstruation abnormal, menstrual problems, periods problems, disorder period, menstrual disorder, menstruation disorders, menstruation disturbances, syndrome menstruation, menstrual problem, disorders menstruation, disorders periods, menstruation problems, Abnormal menstruation (finding), Menstruation disorder NOS (disorder), Problem of menstruation (disorder), Menstruation disorder (disorder), Paramenia, Menstruation disorders, Period disorder, Menstrual problem, Period problem, Menstrual disorder, Disorder of menstruation (disorder), Disorder of menstruation, Problem of menstruation, disorder; menstrual, abnormal; periods, menstruation; disorder, menstruation; syndrome, paramenia, periods; abnormal, Abnormal menstruation, NOS, Problem of menstruation, NOS, Menstrual disorder, NOS, Menstrual Disorders, Menstrual Disorder, Abnormal menstruation, Menstrual problem (navigational concept), Menstrual problem (finding), Menstruation disorder NOS (finding)
Italian Disturbo mestruale, Disturbo mestruale non specificato, Mestruazioni anormali, Anomalia della mestruazione, Disordini mestruali, Disturbi mestruali
Dutch menstruatiestoornis NAO, menstruele stoornis NAO, afwijkende menstruatie, stoornis menstruatie, menoxenie, abnormaal; menstruatie, menstruatie; abnormaal, menstruatie; stoornis, menstruatie; syndroom, stoornis; menstruatie, menstruatiestoornis, Menstruatiestoornis
French Trouble menstruel SAI, Trouble des règles SAI, Menstruation anormale, Menoxenie, TROUBLE MENSTRUEL, Problèmes menstruels, Trouble menstruel, Troubles de la menstruation, Troubles menstruels
German Menstruationsstoerung NNB, Stoerung menstruell, Menstruation anomal, Zyklusstoerung, MENSTRUATIONSSTOERUNG, menstruelle Erkrankung, Menstruationsstörungen, Störungen der Menstruation
Portuguese Perturbação menstrual NE, Menstruação anormal, Menoxenia, ALTERACAO MENSTRUAL, Transtornos Menstruais, Distúrbios da Menstruação, Perturbação menstrual, Distúrbios Menstruais, Transtornos da Menstruação
Spanish Trastorno menstrual NEOM, Menstruación anormal, Alteración menstrual NEOM, problema menstrual (hallazgo), trastorno de la menstruación, SAI (hallazgo), Menoxenia, MENSTRUACION, TRASTORNO, menstruación anormal (hallazgo), trastorno de la menstruación, SAI, trastorno de la menstruación, SAI (trastorno), menoxenia, Menstruation disorder NOS, menstruación anormal, alteración menstrual, problema menstrual (concepto no activo), paramenia, problema menstrual, trastorno menstrual (trastorno), trastorno menstrual, Trastorno menstrual, problema menstrual (concepto para navegación), Trastornos de la Menstruación, Trastornos Menstruales
Japanese 月経障害NOS, 異常月経, ゲッケイショウガイ, ゲッケイショウガイNOS, イジョウゲッケイ, 月経過少, 月経障害, 月経-逆行性, 逆行性月経, 月経頻発, 頻発月経, 過少月経, 月経異常
Swedish Menstruationsstörningar
Finnish Kuukautishäiriöt
Russian MENSTRUATSIIA RETROGRADNAIA, MENSTRUATSII NARUSHENIIA, GIPOMENOREIA, POLIMENOREIA, ГИПОМЕНОРЕЯ, МЕНСТРУАЦИИ НАРУШЕНИЯ, МЕНСТРУАЦИЯ РЕТРОГРАДНАЯ, ПОЛИМЕНОРЕЯ
Czech Porucha menstruace NOS, Menoxenie, Abnormální menstruace, Porucha menstruace, menstruace - poruchy, menstruační poruchy, poruchy menstruace
Croatian MENSTRUACIJA, POREMEĆAJI
Polish Patologia cyklu miesiączkowego, Zaburzenia miesiączkowania, Zakłócenia miesiączkowania
Hungarian Menoxenia, menstruatiós eltérés, Menstruatiós zavar, Kóros menstruatio, Menstruatiós eltérés k.m.n., Menstruatiós zavar k.m.n.
Norwegian Menstruasjonsforstyrrelser, Uregelmessige blødninger