Gynecology Book

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Breast Anatomy

Aka: Breast Anatomy
  1. Images
    1. GynBreastAnatomyGeneral.jpg
    2. GynBreastAnatomyLobes.gif
    3. GynBreastAnatomyLobules.gif
  2. Surrounding landmarks
    1. Underlying foundation to breast tissue
      1. Pectoralis major muscle
      2. Serratus anterior border (laterally, inferior)
    2. Lateral border
      1. Latissimus dorsi muscle (axilla)
    3. Inferior breast border
      1. Inframammary ridge
    4. Superior breast border
      1. Second rib (inferior to clavicle)
    5. Medial breast border
      1. Sternum
  3. Organization
    1. Peri-Nipple structures
      1. Areola
      2. Areolar glands
      3. Nipple
    2. Lobules
      1. Composed of acini and ducts
    3. Lobes
      1. Composed of Lobules
    4. Lactiferous ducts
      1. Drain lobes to ducts at areolar surface
    5. Cooper's Ligaments
      1. Add structure to breast
      2. Attached to underlying fascia
  4. Development
    1. Pre-Puberty
      1. Breasts in resting state
      2. Nonfunctional ducts
    2. Puberty
      1. Ducts elongated due to Estrogen
      2. Breast buds appear
        1. Appear as retroareolar mass
        2. Do not excise as mass! (halts breast development)
    3. Young adult
      1. Ovulation initiated and Progesterone released
      2. Ducts elongate
      3. Side branches of ducts and lobular elements form
    4. Maturity
      1. Breasts become pendulous
      2. Lobular elements well formed in resting state
    5. Pregnancy
      1. Proximal ducts grow and branch
      2. Breast enlarges
      3. Vascular engorgement
        1. Mammary Blood Flow increases 180%
        2. Breast doubles in weight
        3. May result in bloody Nipple Discharge
          1. Second and third trimester and early Lactation
          2. Resolves spontaneously in most cases
      4. Areolar pigmentation
    6. Perimenopausal
      1. Lobules begin to recede
      2. Leaves residual ducts and fibro-connective tissue
      3. Breast cysts commonly develop during this stage
    7. Postmenopausal
      1. Residual ducts and fat
      2. Easiest time for Clinical Breast Exam

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