II. Epidemiology

  1. Epidemic outbreaks of Acute Diarrheal illness
  2. Most common cause of Viral Gastroenteritis in the world

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Taxonomy
    1. Family: Caliciviridae
    2. Genus: Norovirus
    3. Species: Norwalk Virus
  2. Transmission
    1. Fecal-oral route (Foodborne Illness or Waterborne Illness)
    2. Fomites and surfaces

IV. Causes: Sources

  1. Contaminated drinking water
  2. Contaminated raw produce or uncooked food
  3. Shellfish from contaminated water
  4. Food contaminated by infected food handler

V. Symptoms

  1. Onset: 12 to 48 hours
  2. Duration: 12 to 60 hours
  3. Systemic symptoms
    1. Low grade fever (variably present)
    2. Lethargy
    3. Weakness
    4. Myalgias
    5. Malaise
    6. Headache
  4. Gastrointestinal symptoms
    1. Nausea
    2. Projectile Vomiting (esp. children)
    3. Watery Diarrhea
    4. Abdominal Pain

VI. Prevention

  1. Antibody to Norwalk is not protective

VII. Resources

Images: Related links to external sites (from Google)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window

Ontology: Norwalk virus (C0028422)

Definition (NCI) A species of non-enveloped and spherical viruses with a capsid with T=3 icosahedral symmetry in the Caliciviridae family and Norovirus genus. The genome is composed of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA. Norwalk viruses are found in humans and causes acute viral gastroenteritis. Norwalk viruses are transmitted via oral ingestion or fecal-oral contamination.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Any viral organism that can be assigned to the species Norwalk virus.
Definition (MSH) The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Definition (CSP) type species in the genus Norovirus; the virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein; multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Concepts Virus (T005)
MSH D009663
SnomedCT 10514003
English Norwalk Agent, norwalk agent, virus norwalk, norwalk virus, Norwalk virus NV, NV, Norwalk calicivirus, NORWALK VIRUS, Norwalk Virus, Norwalk virus, Norwalk gastroenteritis virus of humans, Norwalk virus (organism), Norwalk agent
Swedish Norwalkvirus
Czech virus Norwalk
Finnish Norwalk-virus
Italian Agente di Norwalk, Virus di Norwalk
Polish Wirus Norwalk
Japanese Norwalkウイルス, ノーウォークウイルス, ノルウォークウイルス, ノーウォーク因子
French Virus de Norwalk, Virus Norwalk, Norwalk virus, Agent de Norwalk
Spanish virus Norwalk (organismo), virus Norwalk de la gastroenteritis humana, virus Norwalk, Virus Norwalk
German Norwalk-Virus
Dutch Norwalk-gastro-enteritisvirus, Norwalk-virus, Virus, Norwalk-
Portuguese Vírus Norwalk

Ontology: Norovirus (C0949920)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) Any viral organism that can be assigned to the genus Norovirus.
Definition (NCI) A genus of non-enveloped, capsid covered viruses with T=3 icosahedral symmetry, in the family Caliciviridae. The genome is composed of a linear, single-strand of positive sense RNA. Noroviruses are transmitted by the fecal-oral route and cause gastroenteritis in humans.
Definition (MSH) A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
Concepts Virus (T005)
MSH D029322
SnomedCT 243629004, 407359000
Dutch buikvirus, Virus, Norwalk-like, Norovirus
French Virus intestinal, Virus de type Norwalk, Norovirus
German Magenvirus, Norwalk-artige Viren
Italian Virus gastrico, Virus simil-Norwalk, Norovirus
Portuguese Vírus gástrico, Vírus Norwalk-Like, Vírus Semelhantes ao Vírus Norwalk, Norovirus, Vírus Semelhantes ao Norwalk
Spanish Virus gástrico, virus tipo Norwalk, Virus de Estructura Redonda Pequeña, género Norovirus (organismo), género Norovirus, Virus Similares a Norwalk, Norovirus
Japanese 胃内ウイルス, イナイウイルス, ノーウォーク様ウイルス, 小円筒状ウイルス, ノロウイルス属, ノロウイルス, 小型球形ウイルス
Swedish Norovirus
Czech Norovirus, viry podobné viru Norwalk, Žaludeční virová infekce
Finnish Norovirus
English norovirus, norwalk-like viruses, stomach virus, virus stomach, norwalk-like virus, small round structured virus, noroviruses, Norwalk like Viruses, NoV, Norwalk-like virus, NOROVIRUS, Norwalk-like Viruses, Noroviruses, Norovirus, Norwalk-like viruses, Genus Norovirus (organism), Stomach virus, Genus Norovirus
Polish Norovirus
Hungarian Gyomor vírusos betegsége