II. Epidemiology

  1. Relatively rare compared with Open Angle Glaucoma

III. Risk factors

  1. Increasing age
  2. Hyperopia (Far-sightedness)
  3. Family History of Glaucoma
  4. Angle closure Glaucoma in contralateral eye
  5. Pupillary dilation
  6. Anatomic variant with shallow anterior chamber
  7. Female gender (2.4 Relative Risk)

IV. Causes: Precipitating Factors

  1. Dim lighting (results in Mydriasis of the pupil)
  2. Eye Dilating Drops (Mydriatics)
  3. Ophthalmic Anticholinergic Agents
  4. Systemic medications (cause ciliary body edema)
    1. Antidepressants
    2. Sulfa-based medications
    3. Topiramate

V. Pathophysiology

  1. Drainage obstruction of aqueous from anterior chamber
    1. Physical blockage of outflow tract by iris
    2. Narrowing of anterior chamber angle
  2. Increased aqueous production

VI. Symptoms

  1. Acute (Usual presentation)
    1. Decreased Visual Acuity, blurred vision
      1. Severe Vision Loss in hours to days
    2. Visual halos or rainbows may occur around streetlights from Corneal edema
    3. Photophobia
    4. Headache
    5. Extreme Eye Pain
    6. Nausea and Vomiting
    7. Abdominal discomfort
  2. Sub-acute
    1. Mild Eye Pain
    2. Visual changes
      1. Colored halos or rainbows seen around streetlights (results from Corneal edema)
      2. Visual changes less pronounced with Miosis (well-lit room, on awakening)
      3. Tunnel vision
    3. Headache

VII. Signs

  1. Shallow Anterior Chamber Depth
  2. Decreased Visual Acuity
  3. Pupil mildly dilated and sluggishly reactive
  4. Globe feels firm or rock-hard on palpation through lid
  5. Increased Intraocular Pressure = 25 - 50 mmHg
  6. Eye Redness
  7. Conjunctival edema (Chemosis)
  8. Corneal edema
    1. Cornea cloudy, "steamy", hazy
  9. Ciliary Flush
  10. Fundoscopy
    1. Optic disc cupping

VIII. Differential Diagnosis

  1. Open Angle Glaucoma
  2. Narrow Angle Glaucoma often misdiagnosed as:
    1. Migraine Headache
    2. Gastroenteritis

IX. Management

  1. Immediate ophthalmology referral
  2. Treat both eyes (typically progresses to involve both eyes)
  3. Temporizing measures
    1. Give Acetazolamide 500 mg orally or IV AND
    2. Administer all 3 ophthalmic medications (repeated every 5 minutes for 3 doses)
      1. Timolol maleate 0.5% (Timoptic) AND
      2. Apraclonidine 1% (Iopidine) given 1 minute after Timolol AND
      3. Pilocarpine 2% (Isoptocarpine) given 1 minute after Apraclonidine
        1. Pilocarpine is only effective after lowering eye pressure with Timolol (due to ischemic paralysis of the iris)
    3. Monitor Intraocular Pressure hourly until patient is seen by ophthalmology
  4. Surgery (definitive treatment)
    1. Laser iridotomy
    2. Iridectomy

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window

Ontology: Angle Closure Glaucoma (C0017605)

Definition (MSH) A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D015812
SnomedCT 392291006, 270882001, 193544008, 33647009
English Angle Closure Glaucomas, Angle-Closure Glaucoma, Angle-Closure Glaucomas, Closed-Angle Glaucoma, Closed-Angle Glaucomas, Glaucoma, Angle Closure, Glaucoma, Angle-Closure, Glaucoma, Closed Angle, Glaucoma, Closed-Angle, Glaucoma, Narrow-Angle, Glaucoma, Uncompensated, Glaucoma, Uncompensative, Glaucomas, Angle Closure, Glaucomas, Angle-Closure, Glaucomas, Closed-Angle, Glaucomas, Narrow-Angle, Glaucomas, Uncompensated, Glaucomas, Uncompensative, Narrow-Angle Glaucoma, Narrow-Angle Glaucomas, Uncompensated Glaucoma, Uncompensated Glaucomas, Uncompensative Glaucoma, Uncompensative Glaucomas, Glaucoma, Narrow Angle, ACG - Angle closure glaucoma, Narrow angle glaucoma, Narrow-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma (diagnosis), angle-closure glaucoma, Angle glaucoma closed, Glaucoma closed angle, Angle closure glaucoma, Glaucoma, Angle-Closure [Disease/Finding], angle closure glaucoma, glaucoma angle-closure, narrow glaucoma angle, narrow angle glaucoma, closed angle glaucoma, glaucoma narrow angle, close angle glaucoma, angles glaucoma narrow, closed-angle glaucoma, glaucoma closed angle, narrow-angle glaucoma, ACG - Angle-closure glaucoma, Closed-angle glaucoma, Closed angle glaucoma, Narrow cleft glaucoma, Angle-closure glaucoma (disorder), Angle-closure glaucoma, glaucoma; angle-closure, glaucoma; narrow angle, glaucoma; obstructive, narrow angle; glaucoma, obstructive; glaucoma, angle-closure; glaucoma, Angle Closure Glaucoma
German Glaukom Winkelblock, Winkelblockglaukom, Engwinkelglaukom, Glaukom, Winkelblock-
Swedish Trångvinkelglaukom
Japanese ヘイソクグウカクリョクナイショウ, 閉塞隅角緑内障, 緑内障-閉塞隅角
Czech glaukom s uzavřeným úhlem, Glaukom uzavřeného úhlu, Glaukom s uzavřeným úhlem
Finnish Ahdaskulmaglaukooma
Italian Glaucoma ad angolo stretto, Glaucoma ad angolo chiuso, Glaucoma non compensato
Polish Jaskra zamkniętego kąta
Hungarian Zártzugú glaucoma, Csarnokzúg glaucoma, zárt
Norwegian Glaukom, ukompensert, Trangvinkelglaukom
Dutch gesloten kamerhoek; glaucoom, glaucoom; gesloten kamerhoek, glaucoom; nauwe kamerhoek, glaucoom; obstructief, nauwe kamerhoek; glaucoom, obstructief; glaucoom, kamerhoekblok-glaucoom, Geslotenkamerhoekglaucoom, Glaucoom, geslotenkamerhoek-
Spanish glaucoma de ángulo cerrado (trastorno), glaucoma de ángulo cerrado, glaucoma de ángulo estrecho, Glaucoma de ángulo cerrado, Glaucoma de Ángulo Cerrado
Portuguese Glaucoma de ângulo fechado, Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado
French Glaucome à angle fermé, Glaucome par fermeture de l'angle irido-cornéen, Glaucome par fermeture de l'angle iridocornéen, Glaucome par fermeture de l'angle, Glaucome à angle étroit

Ontology: Primary angle-closure glaucoma (C0017606)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 365.20, 365.2
ICD10 H40.2 , H40.20
SnomedCT 193547001, 193545009, 193544008, 42456004, 155123006, 270882001, 392288006
English ACG - Angle-closure glaucoma, Primary angle-closure glaucoma NOS, Primary angle-closure glaucoma, unspecified, Primary close-ang.glaucom.unsp, Primary close-ang.glaucoma NOS, primary angle-closure glaucoma (diagnosis), primary angle-closure glaucoma, Primary angle-closure glaucoma, Prim angl-clos glauc NOS, Unspecified primary angle-closure glaucoma, Primary angle-closure glaucoma NOS (disorder), Unspecified primary angle-closure glaucoma (disorder), Primary angle-closure glaucoma (disorder), Primary angle-closure glaucoma, NOS, Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma
Dutch primair kamerhoekblok-glaucoom, primair kamerhoekblok-glaucoom, niet-gespecificeerd, Primair gesloten-kamerhoekglaucoom
French Glaucome primitif à angle fermé, Glaucome primitif à angle fermé, non précisé
German primaeres Winkelblockglaukom, unspezifisch, primaeres Winkelblockglaukom, Primaeres Engwinkelglaukom
Italian Glaucoma primario ad angolo chiuso, non specificato, Glaucoma primario ad angolo chiuso
Portuguese Glaucoma de ângulo fechado primário, Glaucoma de ângulo fechado primário NE
Spanish Glaucoma primario de ángulo cerrado, Glaucoma de ángulo cerrado primario no especificado, glaucoma primario de cierre de ángulo, glaucoma de ángulo agudo, glaucoma primario de ángulo cerrado, SAI, glaucoma primario de ángulo estrecho, glaucoma primario de ángulo cerrado, no especificado, glaucoma primario de cierre de ángulo (concepto no activo), glaucoma primario de ángulo cerrado, no especificado (trastorno), glaucoma primario de ángulo estrecho (trastorno), glaucoma primario de ángulo cerrado, SAI (trastorno), glaucoma primario de ángulo agudo (trastorno), glaucoma primario de ángulo agudo
Japanese 原発閉塞隅角緑内障, 原発性閉塞隅角緑内障、詳細不明, ゲンパツヘイソクグウカクリョクナイショウ, ゲンパツセイヘイソクグウカクリョクナイショウショウサイフメイ
Czech Blíže neurčený primární glaukom s uzavřeným úhlem, Primární glaukom s uzavřeným úhlem
Korean 원발성 폐쇄우각 녹내장
Hungarian Primaer zártzugú glaucoma, nem meghatározott, Primaer zártzugú glaucoma