Ophthalmology Book

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Eye Anatomy

Aka: Eye Anatomy, Limbus, Iris, Conjunctiva, Choroid, Aqueous Humor, Aqueous Outflow Angle
  1. Eyelids
    1. Both lids contain a tarsal plate with Meibomian glands
    2. Lids join at medial and lateral canthi
  2. Sclera
    1. See Sclera
    2. Thick outer coat of the eye
    3. Normally white and opaque
  3. Limbus
    1. Corneal-Scleral junction
  4. Iris
    1. Pigmented light filter
  5. Conjunctiva: Thin, vascular tissue
    1. Covers inner lid lining (palpebral Conjunctiva)
    2. Covers Sclera (bulbar Conjunctiva)
  6. Cornea
    1. See Refractive Error
    2. See Cornea
    3. Transparent front refractive window of eye
  7. Extraocular Muscles: Innervated by CN 3 with 2 exceptions
    1. Medial Range of Motion
      1. Medial Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
    2. Lateral Range of Motion
      1. Lateral Rectus (Cranial Nerve VI)
    3. Upward Range of Motion
      1. Superior Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
      2. Inferior Oblique (Cranial Nerve III)
    4. Downward Range of Motion
      1. Inferior Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
      2. Superior Oblique (Cranial Nerve IV)
  8. Anterior Chamber
    1. Between Cornea and iris
    2. Contains Aqueous Humor
  9. Posterior Chamber
    1. Between iris and zonulae (very small space)
  10. Ciliary body
    1. Produces Aqueous Humor
    2. Suspends lens by zonulae
  11. Aqueous Humor related anatomy
    1. Aqueous Humor
      1. Clear fluid that fills anterior and posterior chamber
      2. Produced by ciliary body
      3. Passes through pupil
      4. Drains via trabecular meshwork (at outflow angle)
    2. Aqueous Outflow Angle
      1. Intersection of Cornea, iris, and ciliary body
      2. Blockage results in Glaucoma
  12. Vitreous Cavity
    1. Large space (4.5cc) between lens and retina
    2. Contains transparent gel (vitreous humor)
  13. Macula and Fovea
    1. Macula is fine central vision area at posterior pole
    2. Fovea is oval depression at center of macula
  14. Choroid
    1. Vascular pigmented tissue between Sclera and retina
    2. Vascular supply for outer retina
  15. Avascular structures of the eye
    1. Lens
    2. Anterior vitreous
    3. Corneal Endothelium

Choroid (C0008520)

Definition (MSH) The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D002829
English Choroid, Choroid of eye, Choroidal structure, Choroidea, Choroids
Spanish coroides, estructura coroidea
Parent Concepts Uvea (C0042160), Tissue membrane (C0025255), Choroidal and/or retinal structures (C0580757), Posterior uveal tract structure (C0588089), Wall of eyeball (C0929391)
Sources LCH , MSH, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Iris (Eye) (C0022077)

Definition (MSH) The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Definition (CSP) most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior; consists of two layers, the stroma and the pigmented epithelium; color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007498
English Iris, Iris structure
Spanish estructura del iris, iris
Parent Concepts Eye (C0015392), Uvea (C0042160), Anterior eyeball segment structure (C0003153), Eye part (C1268161), Sclera and/or iris structures (C0582983), Anterior uveal tract structure (C0588088), Wall of eyeball (C0929391)
Sources AOD , CSP, LCH, LNC, MSH, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Aqueous Humor (C0003662)

Definition (MSH) The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
Definition (UWDA) Body substance in liquid state contained in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eyeball.
Concepts Body Substance (T031)
MSH D001082
English Aqueous Humor, Aqueous humor of eyeball, Aqueous Humors, Aqueous humour, Humor aquosus, Intraocular Fluid, Intraocular Fluids, Structure of aqueous humor, Structure of aqueous humour
Spanish estructura del humor acuoso, humor acuoso
Parent Concepts Anterior chamber of eye structure (C0003151), Extracellular Fluid (C0015349), Body Fluids (C0005889), Humor of eye (C0459553), Extracellular substance of eye (C1267775), Eye fluid (C1959690), Body substance (C0504082)
Sources CSP , LCH, MSH, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Conjunctival Diseases (C0009759)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 372, 372.9
MSH D003229
English conjunctiva, CONJUNCTIVAL DIS, Conjunctival Disease, Conjunctival Diseases, Conjunctival Disorder, Disease of conjunctiva, Disorder of conjunctiva, Disorders of conjunctiva, Unspecified disorder of conjunctiva
Spanish trastorno de la conjuntiva
Parent Concepts Eye diseases (C0015397), Conjunctival Diseases (C0009759), Disorder of eye and adnexa NOS (C1314803), Disease of mucous membrane (C0151785), Conjunctival finding (C0423179), Disorder of anterior segment of eye (C0730121), Disorder of ocular adnexa (C1290855), Ambiguous concept (C1274012), Duplicate concept (C1274013)
Sources CST , ICD9CM, MSH, MTH, NCI, NDFRT, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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