Endocrinology Book

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Thyroid Anatomy

Aka: Thyroid Anatomy, Thyroid Physiology, Thyroid
  1. Images
    1. ThyroidAnterior.gif
  2. Embryology
    1. Develops from Tongue root (foramen cecum)
    2. Formed by 5th-6th week of development
  3. Anatomy
    1. Normal Adult Thyroid weighs 20-25g
    2. Components
      1. Two Lateral lobes
      2. Isthmus centrally connects the lobes
    3. Near structures
      1. Recurrent laryngeal nerve
      2. Parathyroid Glands
  4. Physiology
    1. Stressors stimulate increased Thyroid function
      1. Puberty
      2. Pregnancy
      3. Physiologic stress
    2. Hypothalamus
      1. Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) released
      2. TRH passes down pituitary stalk to pituitary
    3. Anterior Pituitary
      1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) released
      2. TSH passes into circulation to Thyroid
    4. Thyroid
      1. Iodine is absorbed from circulation
      2. Thyroxine (T4) released into circulation
    5. Peripheral Tissues
      1. Triiodothyronine (T3) produced from T4 deiodination
    6. Circulation
      1. Thyroid Binding Globulin (TBG) binds T4 and T3
        1. T4 is 99.96% bound
        2. T3 is 99.7% bound
      2. T4 and T3 stimulate all metabolic processes
        1. T3 is several times more potent than T4
    7. Feedback Loop
      1. Increased T4 and T3 levels suppress TRH and TSH

Thyroid Diseases (C0040128)

Definition (MSH) Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
Definition (CSP) condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the thyroid gland, which is a highly vascular endocrine gland that produces the thyroid hormones which are concerned in regulating the metabolic rate of the body.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 240-246.99, 246.9
MSH D013959
English Disease of thyroid gland, Disorder of thyroid gland, DISORDER THYROID, Disorders of thyroid gland, Thyroid, THYROID DIS, THYROID DISEASE, Thyroid Diseases, Thyroid disorder, Thyroid disorders, Thyroid Gland Disease, Thyroid Gland Diseases, Thyroid Gland Disorder, Thyroid Gland Disorders, Unspecified disorder of thyroid
Spanish enfermedad de la glandula tiroides, trastorno de la glandula tiroides, trastorno tiroideo
Parent Concepts Endocrine System Diseases (C0014130), Endocrine, nutritional, metabolic and immunity disorders (C0342105), Endocrine system (C0014136), Thyroid Diseases (C0040128), Thyroid dysfunction (C0348024), Other disorders of thyroid (C0154164), Disorder of neck (C0558385), Duplicate concept (C1274013)
Sources AOD , CCS, COSTAR, CSP, CST, ICD9CM, MEDLINEPLUS, MSH, MTH, NCI, NDFRT, OMIM, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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