II. Management: Methods of rewarming in wilderness

  1. General
    1. Move the patient to warm, dry environment
    2. Remove wet clothing
    3. Avoid excessive movement (risk of arrhythmia)
  2. Passive external rewarming
    1. Warm dry blanket
    2. Hot water bottle
    3. Wrapped hot rocks
    4. Warm next to another body
  3. Active External Rewarming
    1. Radiant heat source
    2. Heat pads
    3. Immersion
  4. Active core rewarming
    1. Heated airway inhalation
    2. Heated IV fluids
    3. Gastrointestinal irrigation
    4. Peritoneal Dialysis
    5. Extracorporeal rewarming
    6. Diathermy

III. Management: Wilderness

  1. Mild Hypothermia
    1. Prevent further heat loss
    2. Remove wet clothing
    3. Move to warm environment
    4. Oral rehydration
  2. Severe Hypothermia
    1. Evacuation
    2. Gentle handling
    3. ABC Management and Cardiac monitor

IV. Prevention: Wilderness

  1. Plan the activity
  2. Appropriate clothing
    1. Dress in layers
    2. Wear hat and gloves
  3. Appropriate Food and Fluids
    1. Drink fluids
    2. Avoid Alcohol and Tobacco
    3. Adequate diet

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