II. Locations

  1. Hands
  2. Feet
  3. Ears
  4. Nose
  5. Penis

III. Signs

  1. Superficial Frostbite
    1. White color
    2. Frozen exterior
    3. Blisters developing into eschar
  2. Deep Frostbite
    1. Woody-feel to skin
    2. No Blisters
    3. Mummification or amputation

IV. Management

  1. Rapid rewarming in warm bath
  2. Do not rub skin
  3. Narcotic pain medication
  4. Elevate involved area
  5. Oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen
  6. Tetanus prophylaxis
  7. Penicillin G
  8. Daily Hydrotherapy
  9. Do not rewarm if chance of refreezing

V. Sequelae

  1. Excessive sweating
  2. Cool extremities
  3. Numbness
  4. Abnormal color
  5. Nail Disorder
  6. Skin Pigment Changes
  7. More susceptible to second injury

VI. Prevention

  1. Never ignore numbness in a cold extremity

VII. Images

  1. Presentation Graphic
    1. erEnvironFrostbite.jpg

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window

Ontology: Frostbite (C0016736)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Frostbite is an injury to the body that is caused by freezing. It most often affects the nose, ears, cheeks, chin, fingers, or toes. Frostbite can permanently damage the body, and severe cases can lead to amputation.

Signs of frostbite include

  • A white or grayish-yellow skin area
  • Skin that feels unusually firm or waxy
  • Numbness

If you have symptoms of frostbite, seek medical care. But if immediate medical care isn't available, here are steps to take:

  • Get into a warm room as soon as possible.
  • Unless absolutely necessary, do not walk on frostbitten feet or toes. Walking increases the damage.
  • Put the affected area in warm - not hot - water.
  • You can also warm the affected area using body heat. For example, use your armpit to warm frostbitten fingers.
  • Don't rub the frostbitten area with snow or massage it at all. This can cause more damage.
  • Don't use a heating pad, heat lamp, or the heat of a stove, fireplace, or radiator for warming. Since frostbite makes an area numb, you could burn it.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Definition (NCI) Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.
Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
MSH D005627
ICD10 T33-T35.9 , T33-T34
SnomedCT 157717008, 213637003, 370977006, 38045000
English Frostbites, Frostbite, frostbite (diagnosis), frostbite, Frostbite [Disease/Finding], frostbites, Frostbite (T33-T34), Frostbite (event), Congelation injury, Frostbite (disorder), Frostbite - disorder, Congelation injury, NOS, Frostbite, NOS
Japanese 凍傷, トウショウ
Swedish Frostskada
Czech omrzlina, Omrzlina
Finnish Paleltumavamma
Russian OTMOROZHENIE, ОТМОРОЖЕНИЕ
Polish Odmrożenie
Hungarian Fagyás
Norwegian Frostskader, Kuldeskader, Forfrysninger
Portuguese Ulceração por Frio, Queimadura por Frio, Congelação, Congelamento das Extremidades
Spanish congelamiento (trastorno), congelamiento, Congelación, Congelación de Extremidades
Dutch bevriezing, Bevriezing
French Gelure, Gelures
German Erfrierung
Italian Congelamento