II. Causes: Medications

  1. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or ACE Inhibitors (cough)
  2. Anticholinergics, Antihistamines, Diuretics (mucosal drying)
  3. Antipsychotic Medications (Dystonic Reaction)
  4. Bisphosphonates (Laryngitis)
  5. Sex hormones such as Danazol, Testosterone
  6. Inhaled Corticosteroids (Laryngitis due to irritation, fungal infection)
  7. Anticoagulants such as Warfarin, Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors such as Viagra (vocal fold hematoma)

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