Dermatology Book

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Skin AnatomyAka: Epidermis, Macula adherens, Dermis, Hypodermis, Intraepidermal, Stratum Corneum, Cornified Layer, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Granulosum, Granular Layer, Stratum Sprinosum, Prickle Cell Layer, Stratum Germinativum, Stratum Basale, Basal Cell Layer, Keratinocyte, Langerhans Cell, Desmosome

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  1. See Also
    1. Hair Follicle
    2. Sebaceous Gland
    3. Melanocyte
  2. Images
    1. Cross Sectional Anatomy
      1. DermSkinAnatomy.jpg
  3. Definitions
    1. Epidermis (external skin surface)
      1. Keratinised squamous epithelium
      2. Thickness
        1. Eyelids: 0.05 mm
        2. Palms and soles: 1.5 mm
    2. Dermis (supports epidermis)
      1. Thick, dense, fibroelastic connective tissue
      2. Highly vascularized
      3. Contains sensory receptors
    3. Hypodermis (Subcutaneous layer)
      1. Loose connective tissue with adipose tissue
  4. Skin Functions
    1. Sensation (largest sensory organ in the body)
    2. Protection
      1. Prevents dehydration
      2. Prevents infection
      3. Physical barrier to injury
      4. Protects against ultraviolet light injury (Melanin)
    3. Thermoregulation
      1. Insulation (hair and adipose tissue)
      2. Heat dissipation
        1. Sweat evaporation
        2. Increased blood flow
    4. Metabolic
      1. Energy storage of Triglycerides in adipose tissue
      2. Vitamin D synthesis
  5. Epidermis Cell Layers (cells mature from inner to outer)
    1. Stratum Corneum (Cornified Layer)
      1. Outermost layer of epidermis
      2. Composed mostly of keratin (fibrous protein)
      3. Cells desquamated (27 days after production)
    2. Stratum Lucidum (present only in very thick skin)
    3. Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer)
      1. Darker layer with intracellular granules
      2. Produces keratin
    4. Stratum Spinosum (Prickle Cell Layer)
      1. Composed of keratinocytes
      2. Cells produced by basal layer and growing
      3. Keratin production starts
    5. Stratum Germinativum (Stratum Basale, Basal Cell Layer)
      1. Innermost layer of epidermis
      2. Cells are produced here in the germinal layer
      3. Forms the prickle cells in the layer above
  6. Interspersed cells and units
    1. See Hair Follicle
    2. See Sweat Gland
    3. See Sebaceous Gland
    4. See Melanocyte
    5. Merkel's Cell
    6. Langerhans Cells (in Prickle Layer)
      1. Dendritic histiocytic cells
      2. Intercept antigenic signal and pass to lymphoid cells
    7. Desmosome (Macula adherens)
      1. Intercellular bridge that attaches epidermal cells
      2. Small dense Plaque with protruding tonofilaments
  7. References
    1. Habif (1996) Clinical Dermatology, Mosby, p. 24
    2. Murphy in Cotran (1989) Robbins Pathology, p. 1277-8
    3. Wheater (1987) Functional Histology, p. 130-2

Dermis (C0011646)

Definition (MSH)A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Definition (NCI)(DER-mis) The lower or inner layer of the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin.
Definition (UWDA)Dense irregular connective tissue which consists of a papillary layer and a reticular layer.
ConceptsTissue (T024)
MSHD020405
EnglishCorium, Cutis, Dermis, Dermis structure
Spanishdermis, estructura de la dermis
Parent ConceptsSkin (C1123023), Skin tissue (C0684084), Skin part (C1268090), Organ component of skin (C0925982)
SourcesAOD, LCH, MSH, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Desmosomes (C0011703)

Definition (MSH)A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Definition (GO)Button-like point of intercellular contact through which the intermediate filaments of adjacent cells are connected indirectly. [ISBN:0815316208]
Definition (NCI)Desmosomes are intercellular anchoring junctions that anchor intermediate filaments at membrane-associated plaques in adjoining cells. Desmosomes assemble in response to cell-cell contact and raised levels of extracellular calcium. Sensitivity to calcium levels is lost as desmosomes mature.
ConceptsCell Component (T026)
MSHD003896
EnglishDesmosoma, Desmosome, Desmosomes, Macula adherens, Spot Desmosome
Spanishdesmosoma, macula adherente
Parent ConceptsIntercellular Junctions (C0021721), Adherens Junction (C0887872), Junctional complex (C0230612), Anchoring cell junction (C1179999)
SourcesCSP, GO, MSH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Epidermis (C0014520)

Definition (MSH)The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Definition (NCI)(ep-i-DER-mis) The upper or outer layer of the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin.
Definition (NCI)The epithelial portion of the skin (cutis). It consists of the following layers: stratum corneum (horny layer), stratum granulosum (granular layer), stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer), and stratum basale (basal cell layer).
ConceptsTissue (T024)
MSHD004817
EnglishEpidermal, Epidermis, Epidermis structure
Spanishepidermis, estructura de la epidermis
Parent ConceptsSkin (C1123023), Epithelium (C0014609), Skin tissue (C0684084), Skin part (C1268090), Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (C0836136)
SourcesAOD, CSP, LCH, LNC, MSH, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


keratinocyte (C0022567)

Definition (MSH)Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Definition (CSP)vertebrate, epidermal cell of ectodermal origin.
Definition (NCI)Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
ConceptsCell (T025)
MSHD015603
EnglishKeratinized cell of epidermis, keratinocyte, Keratinocytes
Spanishqueratinocito
Parent ConceptsCells (C0007634), Skin (C1123023), Epithelial Cells (C0014597), Skin Squamous Cell (C1519354), Skin cell (C0814995), Epidermal cell (C1179149)
SourcesCSP, MSH, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Stratum granulosum (C0221923)

ConceptsTissue (T024)
EnglishGranular Layer, Granular layer of epidermis, Stratum granulosum, Stratum granulosum of epidermis
Spanishestrato granuloso, estructura del estrato granuloso
Parent ConceptsEpidermis (C0014520), Skin part (C1268090), Epidermis proper (C1180287), Subdivision of epidermis proper (C1181284)
SourcesAOD, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Stratum Basale (C0221925)

ConceptsTissue (T024)
EnglishBasal cell layer, Basal cell layer of epidermis, Basal Layer, Rete Malpighii, Stratum Basale, Stratum basale of epidermis, Stratum basalis of epidermis, Stratum germinativum
Spanishestrato basal, estrato de celulas basales, estrato germinativo, estructura del estrato germinativo
Parent ConceptsEpidermis (C0014520), Skin part (C1268090), Dermoepidermal junction (C0221929), Epidermis proper (C1180287), Subdivision of epidermis proper (C1181284)
SourcesAOD, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Subcutaneous Tissue (C0278403)

Definition (MSH)Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
ConceptsTissue (T024)
MSHD040521
EnglishHypoderm, Hypodermis, Subcutaneous connective tissue, Subcutaneous Tissue, Subcutaneous tissue structure, Subcutaneous Tissues, Superficial fascia, Tela Subcutanea
Spanishestructura del tejido celular subcutaneo, hipodermis, tejido celular subcutaneo, tejido conectivo subcutaneo, tejido conjuntivo subcutaneo, tejido subcutaneo, tela subcutanea
Parent ConceptsConnective Tissue (C0009780), Fascia (C0015641), Skin AND subcutaneous tissue structure (C0870032), Integumentary system (C0037267), Skin (C1123023), Loose connective tissue (C1253917)
SourcesCSP, MSH, MTH, NCI, SCTSPA, SNOMEDCT, UWDA
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Intraepidermal Route of Administration (C1512941)

Definition (NCI)Administration of a drug within the superficial epithelial layer of the skin.
Definition (NCI)Administration within the epidermis. (FDA)
ConceptsFunctional Concept (T169)
EnglishI-EPIDERM, INTRAEPIDERMAL, Intraepidermal Route of Administration
Parent ConceptsIntraepithelial Route of Drug Administration (C1512943)
SourcesNCI
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)



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