III. Mechanism

IV. Precautions

  1. Acute withdrawal risk (do not stop suddenly)
    1. Especially if Clonidine dose >1.2 mg per day

V. Preparations

  1. Clonidine (Catapres)
    1. Start: 0.2 mg PO load
    2. Titrate 0.1 mg/hour to:
      1. Maximum of 0.7 mg
      2. Diastolic Blood Pressure drops more than 20 mmHg
  2. Methyl-Dopa (Aldomet)
  3. Guanabenz (Wytensin)

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Cost: Medications

Clonidine (on 6/18/2017 at Walmart.com)
Clonidine 0.1mg #30 tablets for $4.00 $0.13 each
Clonidine 0.1mg #90 tablets for $10.00 $0.11 each
Clonidine 0.2mg #30 tablets for $4.00 $0.13 each
Clonidine 0.2mg #90 tablets for $10.00 $0.11 each
Methyldopa (on 6/18/2017 at Walmart.com)
Methyldopa 250mg #60 tablets for $4.00 $0.07 each
Methyldopa 250mg #180 tablets for $10.00 $0.06 each
clonidine (on 5/17/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
CLONIDINE 0.1 MG/DAY PATCH Generic $14.73 each
CLONIDINE 0.2 MG/DAY PATCH Generic $23.62 each
CLONIDINE 0.3 MG/DAY PATCH Generic $28.02 each
CLONIDINE HCL 0.1 MG TABLET Generic $0.02 each
CLONIDINE HCL 0.2 MG TABLET Generic $0.04 each
CLONIDINE HCL 0.3 MG TABLET Generic $0.05 each
CLONIDINE HCL ER 0.1 MG TABLET Generic $2.98 each
catapres (on 1/4/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
CATAPRES 0.2 MG TABLET Generic $0.04 each
CATAPRES-TTS 1 PATCH Generic $14.73 each
CATAPRES-TTS 2 PATCH Generic $23.62 each
CATAPRES-TTS 3 PATCH Generic $28.02 each
methyldopa (on 5/17/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
METHYLDOPA 250 MG TABLET Generic $0.10 each
METHYLDOPA 500 MG TABLET Generic $0.27 each

Ontology: Clonidine (C0009014)

Definition (MSH) An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
Definition (CHV) a hypertension treatment drug
Definition (NCI) An imidazoline derivate and centrally-acting alpha-adrenergic agonist, with antihypertensive activity. Clonidine binds to and stimulates central alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, thereby reducing the amount of norepinephrine (NE) release and thus decreasing sympathetic outflow to the heart, kidneys, and peripheral vasculature. The reduction in sympathetic outflow leads to decreased peripheral vascular resistance, decreased blood pressure, and decreased heart rate. In addition, clonidine binds to imidazoline receptor subtype 1 (I1), which may also contribute to a reduction in blood pressure.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The active ingredient in a drug used to treat high blood pressure. It is also being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer pain. It blocks the release of chemicals from nerve endings that make blood vessels constrict (get narrower). Clonidine is a type of antihypertensive agent and a type of alpha-adrenergic agonist.
Definition (CSP) alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier; acts centrally by reducing sympathetic tone, resulting in a fall in diastolic and systolic blood pressure and a reduction in heart rate; also acts peripherally.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D003000
SnomedCT 22139009, 372805007, 62782004
LNC LP32548-7, LP14987-9, MTHU002290
English Clofenil, Clonidine, Klofenil, 1H-Imidazol-2-amine, N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-, N-(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amine, clonidine, clonidine (medication), Clonidine [Chemical/Ingredient], CLONIDINE, cloNIDine, Clonidine (product), Clonidine (substance)
Swedish Klonidin
Finnish Klonidiini
Russian KHLOFAZOLIN, GEMITON, KATAPRESAN, KLOFELIN, KLONIDIN, ГЕМИТОН, КАТАПРЕСАН, КЛОНИДИН, КЛОФЕЛИН, ХЛОФАЗОЛИН
Japanese クロニジン塩酸塩, カタプレス, クロニジン, 塩酸クロニジン
Croatian KLONIDIN
Polish Klonidyna
Czech clonidin, klonidin
Spanish clonidina (producto), clonidina (sustancia), clonidina, Clonidina
French Clonidine
German Clonidin
Italian Clonidina
Portuguese Clonidina

Ontology: Guanabenz (C0018312)

Definition (MSH) An alpha-2 selective adrenergic agonist used as an antihypertensive agent.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D006143
SnomedCT 372867002, 82951001
English 2,6-Dichlorobenzylideneaminoguanidine, Guanabenz, 2,6 Dichlorobenzylideneaminoguanidine, Hydrazinecarboximidamide, 2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)methylene)-, guanabenz, Guanabenz [Chemical/Ingredient], GUANABENZ, Guanabenz (product), Guanabenz (substance)
Swedish Guanabenz
Czech guanabenz
Finnish Guanabentsi
Russian GUANABENZ, ГУАНАБЕНЗ
Japanese グアナベンツ, グアナベンズ
Polish Guanabenz
Spanish guanabenz (producto), guanabenz (sustancia), guanabenz, Guanabenzo
French Guanabenz
German Guanabenz
Italian Guanabenzo
Portuguese Guanabenzo

Ontology: Wytensin (C0018313)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D006143
English Wyeth-Ayerst of Guanabenz Acetate, Wyeth Ayerst of Guanabenz Acetate, Acetate Wyeth-Ayerst, Guanabenz, Guanabenz Acetate Wyeth-Ayerst, Wytensin

Ontology: Methyldopa (C0025741)

Definition (NCI) A phenylalanine derivative and an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. Methyldopa is a prodrug and is metabolized in the central nervous system. The antihypertensive action of methyldopa seems to be attributable to its conversion into alpha-methylnorepinephrine, which is a potent alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that binds to and stimulates potent central inhibitory alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. This results in a decrease in sympathetic outflow and decreased blood pressure.
Definition (MSH) An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Neuroreactive Substance or Biogenic Amine (T124) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D008750
SnomedCT 373542000, 84078002
LNC LP16200-5, MTHU016766
English Alphamethyldopa, alpha Methyl L Dopa, alpha Methyldopa, alpha-Methyl-L-Dopa, alpha-Methyldopa, methyldopa, L-Tyrosine, 3-hydroxy-alpha-methyl-, 3-Hydroxy-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine, L-2-Amino-2-methyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic Acid, Levo-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylalanine, O methyl DOPA, methyldopa (medication), Methyldopa [Chemical/Ingredient], alphamethyldopa, alpha-methyldopa, alpha methyldopa, METHYLDOPA, Methyldopa, Alpha methyldopa, Methyldopa (product), Methyldopa (substance)
Swedish Metyldopa
Czech methyldopa
Finnish Metyylidopa
Russian AL'FA-METILDOFA, METILDOPA, METILDOFA, METILDOPAT, АЛЬФА-МЕТИЛДОФА, МЕТИЛДОПА, МЕТИЛДОПАТ, МЕТИЛДОФА
Japanese α-メチルドーパ, メチルドパ, メチルドーパ, アルファ-メチルドーパ
Spanish alfa-Metildopa, metildopa (producto), metildopa (sustancia), metildopato, metildopa, Metildopa
French alpha-Méthyldopa, alpha-L-Méthyldopa, Méthyldopa
Croatian METILDOPA
Polish Metylodopa
German Alphamethyldopa, Methyldopa
Italian Metildopa
Portuguese alfa-Metildopa, Metildopa

Ontology: Central alpha-adrenoceptor agonist (C0360167)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
SnomedCT 349933002, 372623002
English Central alpha-adrenocep agon., Central alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, Central alpha-adrenoceptor agonist (product), Central alpha-adrenoceptor agonist (substance)
Spanish agonista central alfa adrenérgico (producto), agonista central alfa adrenérgico (sustancia), agonista central alfa adrenérgico, agonista de adrenorreceptor alfa central (sustancia), agonista de adrenorreceptor alfa central

Ontology: Aldomet (C0591055)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D008750
English aldomet, Aldomet, Biopat Brand of Methyldopa, Cahill May Roberts Brand of Methyldopa, Merck Brand of Methyldopa, Merck Sharp & Dohme Brand of Methyldopa, Methyldopa Biopat Brand, Methyldopa Merck Brand

Ontology: Catapres (C0699881)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D003000
English Catapresan, Catapressan, catapresan, catapres, Catapres